K Tentamina by Gentullus


[2613] When a servant makes it cry,



one cannot make him angrier;

one cannot make him more afflicted

than by striking his greyhound.

‘Daughter, think about how it could be dead.

This thing will be very strong.

If you can kill it,

[2620] know for sure, and [make your husband]                         .                                                             [forget it,


you will be able to make three friends,


nor will you ever be worse for it.’

‘Mother,’ she said, it will be killed,

so help me God and Saint Maurice!’


[The second test]


Into her house she went [back].

The Devil has well spell-bound her!

The lord had gone out with the dogs,

for he loved them more than anything.

No sooner was it day that he went out

[2630] and no other thing disturbed him.

The lady put on a long dress,

newly washed and pleated it was;

in her sleeve she had a knife

that she had borrowed from a servant.

A fire she had made of coal;

the seats were around.

The cushions were well decorated,

for the coverings were laundered.


The lord had come [back] from the woods,

in front of the house he got off [his horse];




[2641] now he sat down by the fire.

His wife had a very clear face.

She sat down on the other side,

for she knew many a stratagem and artifice.


Onto the coverlets jump the dogs,

they will never be mindfull of anything

The greyhound comes before her,

and she caresses it, for they do not cry [?].

She thrusts her dress forward,

and it jumps on it now.

[2650] The lady was a bad sister to it:


the knife she thrusts into its heart!

Dead it falls and throws forth a howl.

Said the lord: ‘Who did this?’

‘I, for sure,’ she said, ‘have killed it.

Look how it rendered me!

[The more] I have so many things washed

and laundered by three servants,

[the more] your dogs make everything [look]

.                                                       [disgraceful;

[2660] and I do not dare to say anything [else].



You are more believing in dogs

than in God who is a spirit.’


‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘this know well:

that I am very angry about my dog!

And may God of majesty help me.

I do not know any woman in this realm [who],


if she had killed my greyhound,

would not [be subject to] strong justice.’


‘Sire, dead it is [and will remain], by Saint Denis,

[2670] [even] if I had now to be killed.’

The discussion was left behind

this time and forgotten,

and the evil intention [was] pardoned,


which was very hard and heavy.


The lady got up in the morning

and entered onto her pathway.

Straight to her mother she went

and told her this undertaking:

‘My lady, the greyhound is dead;

[2680] he pardoned me [and excused] his strong                                               


So now he will not have waited any longer

that I make [myself into] a new friend!

I want to love the chaplain,

Guillaume, who is not bad.

This is my opinion, by Saint Simon:

there is no more handsome clergyman [from           .                                                  [here] to Dijon!’

‘Daughter, by God the Creator,


suffer some more, for love[‘s sake],

for it will be All Saints [day] on Thursday

[2690] when your lord will be [in a] happy                                                  .                                                              [[mood];



then he will hold a very great feast

of knights, and a very honorable [one].

And I will tell you what you will do

and in what manner you will act:

when they will be sitting at the table

and the beautiful dishes [will be] put before           .                                                                  [them,

then pretend to get up

so that you make everything topple over.

This outrage will be great;

[2700] if you can accomplish it,

your lord[‘s reputation] will be put low

and you will be wholly above [what happened].’


‘[My] lady,’ she said, ‘I agree;

thus I will do it, by my faith.’


[The third test]


They wait until the right day.

This vassal was a very noble man;

he had invited all his friends

and the good people of the land,

the knights and the burghers,

[2710] and the noble, courteous sergeants.

Much did he endeavored to honor them,

for he was generous in giving.

The kitchen was prepared

and water was given for hand[washing].


When they were all sitting at the table

and the beautiful dishes [were] put before them,

and the goblet[s were] filled

with spiced wine and [more] spiced wine,

and the lady sat down at the low end

[2720] (she had to eat with the senechal),

hear now how she acted

and of what ruse she was thinking:

her keys she attached to the tablecloth,

then jumped up without delay

so that she made everything fall

[and] the food spread out and spill!

All in there were beyond thinking

when they saw the fallen food.

‘Who did this?’ said the lord.

[2730] ‘Now here is [a case of] very great                                           .                                                       [disgrace!’

‘I,’ said the lady, ‘can go on no more,

may God and Saint Gervais help me.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘[this] now is worse.


There are already three [cases of] outrage!’

The lord did not want to talk about it any more,

other food he had brought in.

Joyously the noble man served [it],

and they had a profusion to eat.

And when the company had left

[2740] and the barons had gone,

then he called his wife.

‘It behooves you, [my] lady, to be blood-let.’

‘Sire,’ she said, ‘blood-let yourself!

May it be, by Jesus the Glorious, that

never from my body blood go out,

nor a born man blood-let me!’

‘[My] lady, by my head, you will do so!

Right now I will blood-let you!


Through the ‘whorish’ blood that you have

[2750] and [through] the poison that you carry

[and] of which your veins are full

you have done to me these vile tricks;

for [it was] a great wrong [that] you cut down my                                                            

[pear tree,

and my greyhound, which was gentle,

you killed, and my food

you made vilely topple over.

By my beard that I have  white,

[all] this made you do bad blood!’

She said [that] she would not be blood-let,

[2760] but he drew the furbished sword.

When the lady saw the sword,

she was severely frightened.


The lord said to the blood-letter

that he bleed her fully without delay.

His command he did; in an instant he tied her,

on the left arm he bled her.

He struck it and the blood spurted [forth]


so that one can see it from high [up].

On the other arm he had [already] bled her,

[2770] so then was the lady frightened.

With the evil blood and with the poison

was soon filled a big basin.

The blood-letter wants to remove it,


because he saw her close to fainting,

but the lord blamed him for it

and very strongly insulted him:

‘Vassal, too forward you were,

you who without my leave [wanted to] remove it!

Let the blood come right now;

[2780] she has lots of bad things in her body.

I do not want that there remain in her body

anything bad whatsoever, but [that the bad] be out .                                                                  

[of it.’

When the lady heard this,

know [that] she was completely lost,

so she fainted before peoples’ eyes,

so that more than a hundred saw her.

When the lord saw her faint

and [saw] the blood in the basin blanch,

he said: ‘Now remove it.

[2790] Still there remains some of it,

and nevertheless we have

a little bit of the worst [blood] on top.’

Into her chamber they carried her off,

then she had asked for her mother,

and she came [right away] now.

The daughter says to her, weeping:

and vilely disgraced,

for my lord has had me bled

[2800] on my two arms in order to lighten [my             .                                                             [[blood],

and he has scolded me [about] his pear tree

and [about] his greyhound, which was nice,

that I killed, and [about] his food

that I made vilely to topple over.

Now he has taken about it [all] a severe judgment, and pray well [and gratefully] that he has not killed .                                                                   


‘Beautiful daughter, I knew it well

and I said it all to you instantly.

Your lord is of a very hot temper,

[2810] so help me God and Saint Germain.

/ If you did to him more vile tricks,

he would soon take vengeance for it.

If you had acted [like] a friend,

you would have severed your head from the                                                         .                                                               [trunk.’

So you should do, king,

by that faith that I owe you: 

have that queen bled

who knows so much of bad treachery.

Through the whorish blood of which she has so                                                           .                                                                [much,

[2820] she wants to kill your child.”


K Roma by the queen


[2359] “Seven pagan kings were laying siege to

the city of Rome in such a way

that they wanted to burn it,

to have the chair of Saint Peter,

to put to torment the apostolic clergy,

the cardinals and other people.

The community took advice about it

and put together a great stratagem.

A man there was of great age,

old, ancient, who was very wise.

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘by Saint Amant,

[2370] listen to what appears to me!

Seven pagan kings have laid siege on us,

[they] who are not at all our friends.

And we are in here seven Sages,

noble men of high origin.



May each one of the Sages keep watch one day


[so] that the whoring pagan people

may not be able to cause grief in here,

[nor] to cross the wall and the moat;

or if this is not [done], may there be capture

[2380] of his body [before] coming to a judicial                                                           .                                                             [process.’

And they reply now:

‘We will do it [according to] your commandment.’

The Sages were in [a state of] anxiety;

the city they defend for six months.




Never could [the pagans] enter therein,

nor cross the wall and moat.

When they wanted to attack,

[the Sages] make them flee with their stratagem. For those inside [the situation] goes to worry [2390] that provisions may go missing for them.

One day they came to Genus/Janus,

to the master Sage, in the palace.

Because of this Janus one says January,

the month which is before February.

‘Sire,’ they go, ‘ now it is in you

to defend [us] tomorrow vigorously.’




‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘it is rather up to God,

the glorious [in his] majesty.

Do you know what I command you,

[2400] to you all together?


That tomorrow you be well armed,

[that] big and small all [be] ready,




and I will make a great contraption

in order to frighten the Saracens.





‘Sire,’ they go, ‘you have spoken well.

We will act according to your wishes.’

He had a vestment cut

and had it dyed in ink.

Tails he made [them] buy

[2410] of squirrels, more than a thousand;

he had them attached together

and arranged very cleverly.

And also he had two masks

which were very ugly things;

their tongues were vermilion.

This was held [to be] a great marvel!



Above he had a mirror made,

which shone brilliantly against the day.

This [one] Sage got up in the morning

[2420] and robed himself in this contraption,

then climbed up on the Tower of Crescentius, which was quite high and big.







With him he carried two swords;

they had rich hilts.

He puts himself toward the Saracens

at a parapet, all the way on the top.

The swords he began to strike [together]

so that he made fire [sparks] jump from them.

Said one [of the] pagan[s]: ‘The God up there [2430] has tonight descended down

in order to come to the help of his people on earth.


To our misfortune did we engage in this war!’




When they have seen this, they went away

and left the siege at that.

Well they fled in [a state of] folly:

they would not have lost a sorb apple there.

And those from Rome came out of there,

very hard they invaded them;

many they killed and wounded,

[2440] and great wealth they conquered there.



Just so are you acting, lord king,

by the faith I owe you.



[Foreshadowing Virgilius]

You carry on just such foolishness

as the one who plays ball.

When he holds it, immediately he throws it

to his companions in the street.




And so is he not quite a silly fool

when he launches it and runs after [it]?

You have the custom with the child:

[2450] when it cries and has great pain

and the breast is offered it,

immediately its war is apeased.”


K Avis by Cathon


[3077] “There was once a castellan,

thirty manors he had in his hands.


A wife he took of very high origin

who was of high lineage.

He loved her much and honored [her],

but she hardly appreciated him,

rather she loved a knight

[who was]  quite uncourageous and very                                                                 .                                                         [cowardly;

and his lord was a vassal [of] such [a nature]

that he did not fear an admiral.

But wom[e]n he does not  desire

except where his heart allies itself,

still he often loves

[3090] nine times worse than his lord.

He made a very beautiful house,

high and round, with a tower.

Chambers in there he does not want to suffer,

nor to build walls inside.

That rich man had a magpie:

of it it is well right that I speak.

It talked cleverly

and very understandably

exactly like it were a woman;

[3100] great talk about it there was throughout the                                                          .                                                                 [realm.

In a very beautiful cage

of iron which was newly made

was imprisoned that magpie

which was so wise and learned.

To a chain was close[ly attached]

the doubl[y strong] cage of iron.

Toward the roof one had hung it,

so it was in beautiful view.



It would not have been worth for any reward

[3110] that anything were to do it harm.

In the house there was a great lot of tasks

(all the sergeants hated it):

there would not be anything badly done

that it was not all told by [the bird],

nor [was there] anything done or said secretly


that it did not tell all to the lord.

The lady was not so forward

that she went out without company,

if she had not two or three men [with her],

[3120] and came back at once.

The magpie guarded her closely,

it took away [the lady’s] pleasure with her friend.


Much did the sergeants hate it

all together, small and tall,

and the lady [too] hated it much,

but she did not dare to do it harm.






One day the lord was not in,

nor most of his men.

The lady remains and the magpie,

[3130] she has her household to herself.


She sat down and thought about

how she will take revenge on it.





She called a sergeant,

and he came to her quickly.

‘Can I at all have confidence in you?’

‘Yes, my lady, by my faith.’

‘Have you seen [the doings] of the magpie?

It does not let me engage in relationship[s]!

I cannot talk to my friend,

[3140] kiss, enjoy nor embrace [him].



Do you know what you will do?

As soon as [it is] night you will climb

on top of this house,

and so you uncover it on top.



Then climb down to the floor,

make [the roof have]  small piercing[s].


Water and gravel you will carry,

through the holes you will throw them

so that the magpie is wet

[3150] and [so] that it spends a bad night.

With a hammer you will strike on [the roof];

a fistful of candles you will hold

which will be very well lit;

through the holes they will be shown


so that it thinks [that] that is a thunderstorm

and a marvelous tempest.’




He did her command.

























Onto the house he climbed quickly



















and took everything with him

[3160] that the lady [had] devised;

he did not finish all night.

Now the magpie had bad entertaiment!

When the watchman bugled day[light],

the sergeant without any detour

from the house climbed down

and now covered [the roof] back up,

and the lady made get back up


quickly, without lingering, her friend who lay with                                                                      .                                                                    [her;

[3170] the lady told him very well

that he make haste to get ready.

So the knight got up

and got dressed hastily,

then left quickly.

He asks for leave and leaves,



but the magpie shouted out at him:

‘Sire Gerart, son of Tierri,

a bad situation you have built us!

Why do you not wait for my lord

[3180] when you lie with his wife?





Great shame will come to you from it:

I will tell him  when he  comes!’

He departed, it remained;

see here now the lord who came!  

He got off his horse;

the lady had seized the stirrup.

Around his neck she put her arms

and said that she loved his love-making.



Much she made fun of the man

[3190] whom she did not appreciate one button!


The rich man was astonished

that his magpie did not speak to him.

Straight to the cage he came,

his wife was beside him.

The lord called his magpie:

‘What are you doing, Mehaut, [my] friend?

How are you? Are you not healthy?

Tell me, by Saint Helen!

You used to talk to me

[3200] and to lead a very great joy[ful life];

now I see you so quiet and so mute

and so pensive and forlorn.’

‘Sire, the explanation is honest:

I am so battered by storm!

All night it did not end,

nor did the water which goes to the mill,

nor the raining, nor the blowing,

nor the lightning, nor the thundering.



And your wife went to bed

[3210] in that bed that you see there

with Gerart, son of Tierri!’

Said the lady: ‘Sire, mercy!



Thus must you well believe it:

it is more than a month [that] there was no thunder. Look in that marsh

whether, [how] much or when is has rained!’



Thus it happened [by] chance

that that evening the moon came back

all night long, [so] brilliant and beautiful

[3220] (background it was, not new),

that where the lord was,

in the housee where he lay,

the moon went back over him,

which made for very great annoyance for him.

To his knights he complained


about the moon which shone so.


So he believed well that his magpie

told him in all [respects] a treacherous [lie].

The cage he had unlocked,

[3230] his hand he had thrust inside;

in anger that he had honest[ly]

he had broken its head,

then he flung it immediately in the air.

‘Go you to the Devil in flight,


for many times you have made me get irritated

and get angry with me wife!’



Then he sat up in his bed,                                                

very angry and very pensive.

Upwards he had looked,

[3240] he saw the roof ridge disturbed

and the shingle which was not in its place



and the soot of the house,

of which there used to hang a lot [about],

but now there was nothing of it at all.


One of his sergeants he called beside him:

‘A ladder bring me there,

because by Jesus who did not lie,

I believe [that] my wife has betrayed me!’

And he brought the ladder

[3250] straight to the roof ridge and raised it up.

The lord climbed up,

because he no longer stopped himself [from going                                                             .                                                           [[up] there.


A marsh he had seen,

which was flooded by the water,

and the hammer he looked at

and the wax, which was dripping down,

from the candles [and he understood] how the                                                .                                                             [servant

went waving them about on the top.



Now he knew well, without treachery,

[3260] that he had killed his magpie wrongfully. Immediately he drew the sword

and ‘un-necked’ his wife!

Now he has acted like the wolf:

for one damage he has done two.



Good king, for [the grace of] God who did not lie, beware [that] you do not act thus.

Do not kill your child

for the word of the servant.”






K Sapientes by the queen


[3281] “Once in Rome there was a king

who was very wise and courteous.

I do not know how he got heavier

so that never in three years he went out

into the streets of the city

nor [out of] his honored palace.


One day his barons call on him,

simply they reasoned with him:

‘Sire, why do you stay so much inside?

[3290] You are very much heavier because of it!

If you were to walk around [more], by Saint                                          .                                                           [Germain,

you would be lively and healthy.’

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘I shall seek you out

and I shall go see my castles.’

So he went to get ready

and mounted on a horse.


He had the great gate opened:

still he could not go out of Rome!


When he saw this he was very angry,

[3300] quickly he returned.

To the other gate he came running,

but it netted him nothing;




he kicks the horse, he/it drew back,

he raises his hand and made the sign of the cross.

So he felt trapped,

well did he know that sin does this to him.

He came straight back to the palace,

unhappy he sat down;

the seven Sages he has made to come


 [3310] and before him he has them led.

And all seven came there,

because they no longer stopped [intervening].

‘[My] lords, tell me without holding back

why I cannot go out of Rome.’

They reply: ‘We do not know

how we would say it,


for we look into the moon


through which we tell fortune.

Fifteen days of delay we request,

[3320] because before we will not see anything.’ ‘[My] lords, the delay I will give you,

but I will do it very half-heartedly.’

So then they went to the river bank,

where often the thunderstorm moved by,

but they could not choose [a reason]

why he could not go out of Rome.

Then there was in Lombardy

a much tried thing,


for nobody dared to dream

[3330] in his bed, nor to have sex,

without going to tell it to his priest,

who was for him lord and master.

He made him take a gold coin

and turn back immediately;

to the seven Sages he has it carried



in the most direct way he could go.

The burgher had great grief;

as much money as he had he carried [to Rome].







So the pilgrim turned toward


[3340] the road to Rome straight away.


He came to a town


where he found a boy

who was playing in the street;

this child was very wise.

This boy was called Jesse,

who was not engendered,

but conceived from a powder

which was in a box

which was delivered to his mother

[3350] and left [with her] to be looked after;

[it was] forbidden [for her] to open it

nor to see anything inside it.

But woman has a talent for too much haste:

she opened it immediately!

In the nose its scent struck her,

so she became pregnant from that odor.

This boy of whom I am telling you

was not at all the father of David [?],

but was brave and natural,

[3360] sociable with everybody.

The child saw the pilgrim

who was coming down the road.


Wherever he saw him, he called him,

courteously he addressed him:

‘Be you welcomed, ‘ he said, ‘[my] friend;

may God of Paradise want this.

I know very well where you are going:

right straight to Rome to the seven evildoers,

for truly they are the devil;

[3370] all their actions I hold to be fable[s].

So you will carry your gold coin to them

and you will before tell them your dream.

And [he] who would let you [keep] your gold coin and would explain your dream to you,





would you laugh about it in your house?’

‘Yes, certainly,’ said the good man.

‘You dreamt, in truth,

that your house was set ablaze;

one half of it fell down,

[3380] and the other remained standing.

A very serene fountain


sprung up from the direction of the other part.

The fire, that is a strong disaster:

there is your wife who has died

since you left your region;

this morning she was buried.

The fountain, that is [something of] great wealth,


this I tell you for sure.

Now go back from here and make [preparations for] .                                                                   [fleeing;

[3390] richly you can maintain yourself.’


The good man said: ‘That is true,

sire, what you have told me,



but it does not come to [my] mind

to begin [my] return at this time;

rather I will go to Saint Peter’s to pray,

for I want to speak to the seven Sages.’


‘Go,’ said the child, ‘handsome friend,

but little would you have gained there.’


The pilgrim then turned from there,

[3400] to the young man he said [for all] to hear: ‘To God I recommed you, handsome friend,

the glorious of Paradise.’

Now the pilgrim turned from there

right straight [to] the way to Rome;

so much he wandered without delay

that he began to approach

the place where the seven Sages were,

who were on the river bank.



Often they looked at the moon,

[3410] for they think of finding the reason

why the king cannot go out

of the city at his pleasure.


But it was not worth one gold coin for them!

Never will they be able to stay there long [enough] so that by them [that reason] can be known

nor the obstacle be recognized.

See here now the pilgrim coming;

the seven Sages he had seen.

As soon as he has seen them,

[3420] immediately he saluted them:

‘[My] lords, may Jesus bless you,


the glorious, the Son of Mary!

Put me on the straight path,

for the love of God who leads everything.






‘Friend, tell [us] what you are going in search of;

tell us your intention in it.’


‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘I will tell you it

right now, without any delay.

I am walking [in order] to speak to the seven Sages;



[3430] I do not know where I can find them.’

Said one [of them]: ‘Here we are, friend!


Of that be certain and sure.’

One of the Sages spoke first

and now said to the master:

‘Sire,’ he said, ‘this poor man

do not let stay in Rome.’

Said the master: ‘Well we grant it.

Friend, tell now your request.’

Said the good man: ‘Well I will tell it,

[3440] in nothing will I lie to you.

[My] lords,’ he said, ‘hear [me] now

and listen to my word.

I dreamt a vision

[because] of which my heart is in great trembling and I am much in great dismay about it;

for that [reason] I came to you without delay.

So tell me, without delaying,

what this can signify.’

Said the Sage: ‘Tell your vision,

[3450] and afterward we will explain it.’


‘I dreamt, in truth,

that my house was burning.

One half of it fell down,

and the other one remained standing.

A very serene fountain



sprung up from the direction of the other part..’

Said the Sage: ‘I will explain it to you,

in nothing will I lie about it.

The fire is a strong disaster:

[3460] that is your wife who has died

since you left your region

this morning she was buried.

The fountain, that is [something of] great wealth; this I tell you well for sure.

Now go back from here and make [preparations for] .                                                                  [fleeing;

richly you can maintain yourself.’


Said the good man: ‘By Saint Amant,

as much a child once told me about it,

and still more, wholly without fail!

[3470] About this I do not seek to lie.’



When the Sages heared this,

strongly they were at a loss about it.

The one to the other said well

that this child knew more than they.

They called the pilgrim

and addressed him nicely:

‘[In the name of] love, gentle pilgrim,

take your coin which is of fine gold,

with this [sum of] thirty from us,

and lead us there […].’


Said the good man: ‘By God’s saints,

willingly will I take you there!’

So then he leads them to the town;

there they found the young man.

One of the seven Sages embraced him

and now addressed him:

‘Now tell me,’ he said, ‘[my] friend,

for [the love of] God who pardoned Longis:

what did you say to this man

[3490] who has come with us from Rome?’

The child said: ‘I told him well;

never did I lie to him about anything.’

‘Friend, would you know how to tell,

and [can you] in your heart reflect

why the king cannot go out

of the city at his pleasure?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘if I wanted to,

I would tell you the truth of it.’

‘So tell us it, friend!

And of this be well assured:

that we will give you seven thousand gold coins,


[3500] so you will be rich and powerful.’

Very willingly will I tell you it

and well will I explain it to you,

but lead me with you to Rome,

for there I will tell you the sum of it.’

The Sages say: ‘Dear friend,

we will willingly lead you there.’

So then they had him get ready

[3510] and put him up on a horse.

His mother goes behind him crying,

for she had fear for her child.

From here to the city of Rome

their reins were not pulled;

much do they guide the child

and they do him great honor.

At one of the Sages’ [place], Engalais,

they put him down in a palace.

Around him they go to assemble;

[3520] much they ask him to recount

why the king cannot go out

of the city at his pleasure.

Said the child quickly:

‘This I will tell you briefly.

[My] lords,’ he said, ‘now listen to me

and listen to my word.

Know [that] under the king’s bed,



well I tell you it by my faith,

there is there a tub,

[3530] very large and proud and, [yes], proud.

As long as it will be there

the king will not go out of Rome.

[If] whoever could remove it from there,

the king could go everywhere.’

When those heard it they were very happy,

but at this they marvel:

at the child who told them this,

[namely] that the tub is under the bed.

Everyone is in a hurry to see it.

[3540] So then they directed their way

right straight to the king, and they told him

what they had found.

When the king heard it, he had very great joy.

Then they went running to the bed,

immediately they had it moved,

from [its] place they had it removed.


Underneath they found the tub

which was very proud and, [indeed], proud.

In the tub there were seven bubbles;

[3550] blacker they were than is coal.

The king saw them, then crossed himself;

from the center of his stomach he sighed.

‘Ha! God!’ he said, ‘it’s my hell!

A more hideous place there is not under the heaven!


Why would I go seeking [the answer] elsewhere when it is getting close to me here?’

The king called the Sages

[3560] and commanded them right away:

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘now remove it!

Into a vile place throw it!’


And the Sages were then astounded

and replied to him immediately:

‘By [our] faith, sire, we do not know

by which stratagem we would remove it.’

‘Non?’ said the king, ‘how can that be,

for the love of God, the celeestial king?

Who then has told you this?

Did you not find it in you?’

‘Sire, they go, ‘a young man

[3570] who is very wise and very handsome.

This one discovered for us

the disaster which is obvious.’


When the king heard it, he embraced him

and immediately addressed him:

‘Friend, would you know how to remove

that tub and move [it]?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘if I wanted to,

sire, I would very willingly remove it from there.’



K Vidua by Jessé


[3687] “In Lothringia there was a high[ly placed]                                                          .                                                                      [man

who was quite handsome as well as good.

Toward himself he had taken a wife;

there was not such a beauty [from there] to Frisia.


Both loved one another strongly,

like two children they played [one with the other].


Much pleased her what he did

and him what she said.




He held one day a knife;

it was newly presented to him.

In the other hand he held a stick

of which he wanted to make an arrow,







but the lady thrust her hands toward it.

[3700] The knife was so close to her

that a little it hurt her in the thumb

so that it made it bleed a little.

When he saw this, much it weighed on him,

but then he neither drank nor ate,

instead he suffered from it so strongly

that the next day he died from it.

He did not have a lion’s heart

when he died because of this event.

The body they had prepared

[3710] and carried it to the church,

there was a new cemetery

which was well outside the town.


There they buried this body

the day on which he was carried there.

And the lady sighs and weeps

and said [that] her hour [of death] remains [too                                                        .                                                              distant].

On the tomb she sat down,

and swears [by] God and Saint Denis

[that] she will never leave from there



[3720] until the day when she will die.

To her came her lineage:

‘Lady, your are not wise at all.

Richly you would be married

and very highly wedded.’

She said that she would never leave from there

until the day when she will die,

because for her her husband died;

she wants to render him the reward for it.

When those see [that] they will not lead her away                                                          .                                                            [from there,






[3730] they left her  immediately.

A shelter they make her quickly;



there they leave her, alone.




They bring logs and fire,

and she remains in that place.

Those leave from there and left her

once they [had] prepared their departure.

At that time that I am telling you

when this duke was buried,

there were in the country three knights,



[3740] good-for-nothings, big and fierce robbers. That region they had much devastated

and much ravaged and robbed,



but they were taken at a pass


and retained by vassalage.



For their crime[s] they were judged,





to the gallows they were sent;


their hands they tie and they blindfolded them,

and straight to the gallows they lead them.

What [else] would I say about it? They were hanged, [3750] and the people came back from there.

In the town there was a knight

who was not cowardly, not cowardly [at all].


When a traitor was hanged there

[and] either a bad good-for-nothing or a robber,

it behooved him to guard all;

[nobody] could in other ways escape from there.








Now know well, by Saint Gervais,

[that] this was a very bad job!




Onto his horse this [knight] mounted,

[3760] straight to the gallows he went.




This was around Saint Andrew’s day,

when the place was very chilly.



A long while he was there;

much did this cold aggrieve him.



Then he looked toward the cemetery,

where the lady was living her grief.



Well he knew that she was his neighbor,

but she was not at all his cousin.





He thought to himself that he will go there

[3770] and warm himself a little.

So he quickly spurs on the horse,


that way he goes without tarrying.

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘open your shelter

and receive me with you!





I am Gerart, the son of Guion,

who guards up there those three good-for-nothings.







Never from me will you hear anything vile,


nor a lecherous word.’


[3780] Said the lady: ‘So enter here

when you assure me of this.’

And the knight entered there,

his horse he attached outside.

He was neither bad nor a villain,


toward the fire he had stretched out his hands.


When he had retaken his vigor

and his color has come back,

he said to her: ‘Dear friend,

what are you doing beside this coffin?

Never before woman did this,

[3790] such action she did not undertake,

for one cannot escape death,

neither for promising nor for giving [something].






You have very rich friends,

knights who are of great value;

these will give you a valiant husband,

a very noble man, and very powerful.

For there is not in the world such pain

nor storm, nor darkness

that one must not forget altogether,

[3800] for death makes everything come to an end.’



She said that she will not leave from there

before the day when she will die,

that for her her baron died;

so she will render him the reward.

There she wants, this she said, to die

and her life thus finish.

The knight has tarried too long.

So much pleaded he with the lady,




so long did he stay there

[3810] that one of the good-for-nothings was                                              .                                                       [removed.



The knight thought to himself

that he will go straight to the gallows.




Upon his horse he mounted

and left for the gallows.

In the place he stopped,

looked up to the gallows,

did not see the good-for-nothing:

so he knows well that it was removed.

Now he considers himself well disgraced

[3820] and fears that he be shamed;

he does not know what he could become,

nor the country where he must flee.



He thought to himself that he will go

to the lady and ask for advice

[and get] to know whether she would know how to                                                                                   .                                                                [give him

[a means] by which he could save himself.

Right away he spurs on the horse,

to the shelter he goes back.

The frank man stopped outside

[3830] and called the lady toward him:

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘I am much shamed, disinherited and in bad shape,

for one has removed one good-for-nothing;

his relatives carried him away.

Now it behooves me to flee to Frisia!

I will not await justice.’

‘Friend,’ the lady said, ‘listen




and hear my word:

if you wanted to love me

[3840] and take me as [your] wife and marry [me],

I would give you good advice

and make such a stratagem

that in [this] country you would hold on to your                                                                  .                                                                   [land,

[that] from nowhere you would have war.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘I promise you

to keep to this covenant.’

‘Friend,’ said she, ‘listen to me,

so I will tell you my plan.

See here now my lord

[3850] who was buried this day.

Since then, certainly, he did not move at all,

nor will the sheet around him worsen.

Come forward and take him,

in place of the good-for-nothing hang him!’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘I will do it;

I will obey [you] at your pleasure.’

The body they now dug up



and straight to the gallows carried it;

a ladder they put up to the top.

[3860] Now is the honest god put back [in his place!

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘if I were to hang him,

an altogether fine coward would I become.’


‘[My] friend,’ said she, ‘I will hang him

for your love, without any delay.’






The lady was of a bad lineage:

around his neck she put the noose,








then she climbed down from there,

to the knight she went.







‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘he is up there,


[3870] but, by my head, there is more:

the other one was wounded in the hanging


with a sword in the sides.’



Said the lady: ‘So wound him,

for you are well relieved by it,


and if you wish, I will strike him

right away, without any delay.’

The lady seized a sword,

her lord she strikes in the side;

such a violent thrust she gave him

[3880] that the iron passed through him.


‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘he is up there,

but, by my head, there is more:

the other one had two broken teeth.

Tomorrow, when the people will come here,

right away they will recognize it

as soon as they will see it/him.’

‘[My] friend,’ she said, ‘so break his [teeth]!

Very well are you relieved by it,

and if you wish, I will break them

[3890] right away, without any delay.’

Then she seized a stone,


toward him she comes, all eager;

now she broke two of his teeth

and afterward climbed down.



And when she had climbed down,

to the knight she came.

Right away she addressed him,

afterward she told him her thinking:

‘[My] friend, strongly I valued your love

[3900] when I hanged my lord.’

‘True?’ he said. ‘Dirty whore!

By the Lord God who made Eve

may he, whoever he may be, be disgraced

for believing in a bad woman!





Soon have you forgotten the one

who for you was yesterday interred!

I would judge with reason

that one burn you to coal for it.’

The lady had pain [because] of these news:

[3910] now she has fallen between two saddles!


Like this you act [as well], lord king,

by that faith that I owe you.

That woman [= your wife] torments you strongly: you believe her more than your [eye] sight.

You will hear in [good] time the explanation

[of] who will be wrong, indeed, and who not.”













K Virgilius by the queen


[3931] “Virgil was once in Rome,

in this century there was no wiser man.



Virgil made in Rome a fire

by necromancy, in a very beautiful place,

which by night and by day burned;

not once did it grow

nor became smaller at other time[s];

the century marvelled much at it.

Still more did he make in that fire:

[3940] a man of bronze he throws on it,




and he held a bow in his hand


which was also of bronze.

Letters he had written on the collar

which said to whom reads them:

‘Whoever will strike me, I will shoot [him].’

More there was not, nor is there anything else.


People go there to assemble


and to look at that marvel,





and the clerks read the letters,

[3950] for they know well what they said.




A bishop came there from Carthage,

who was much of a very great lineage.

The letters he saw and looked at them;

it seemed to him to [amount to] little.

To his people he said that he would strike him there.


‘Sire, well must you be silent about it

when other people do not dare to do it.’

In his hand he held a stick,

[3960] so he struck him with it in the neck,

and he right away shot

in the center of the fire and extinguished it

so that they could not ever choose

any glowing ash nor see any coal.




Virgil made such presents

inside Rome, quite a few of the most beautiful,

for at the gate over there

he cast a[nother] man of bronze.



At the other gate by his hand

[3970] he cast a [third] man of bronze;

a beautiful ball he had

in his hand, which was of bronze.

From here to there, at the strike of nine

on Saturday[s] when it sounds,

to the other street he throws it;

thus they carry on such play.

From here to there [one of them] is occupied by it


between them [every] other Saturday.



Virgil made a mirror

[3980] which was much of great value.

Much was this mirror prized;

in height it was well a hundred feet.

Much had he very well illuminated it;

one saw in it throughout the city.

The servants who went for wine

carried there no other candle.



Never was the night so troubled

that [people] would have lost anything there

by robbers or by thieves;

[3990] the mirror was their explanation.

To no avail would [somebody] steal land

when he would enjoy nothing.




To the mirror [people] run to know


which way their possessions have turned.


Much was at peace this land,

from nowhere was there [a threat of] war;

to the mirror they run to know

when a war there must be.

Nobody dared to invade it,

[4000] neither kings nor dukes nor counts

                                  [dared to] attack.

Much were the Romans proud:

nobody could humble them.













But in Hungary there was a king

who was very wise and courteous,







and he was greatly envious

of Rome having such hegemony.

Four sergeants he called;

he had nourished them, much he trusted them.


‘[My] lords, much is my heart swollen

[4010] [at the thought] that in Rome there is such                                                      .                                                          [great dignity.







The Romans are of very great pride

for the love of that mirror.’

Said one sergeant: ‘If the heart does not fail,


the mirror which is high


we will make tumble down for you



quickly, without delaying.

But charge us with your wealth.’

‘Take of it at your desire,’

goes the king, ‘silver as well as gold,

[4020] for much of it there is in my treasur[y],

if you wish, grain [barrels] filled [to the brim],









and load of them big cartloads full.’





And those do so diligently

when they hear his order.

Then they took to the road

and went straight to Rome.


When they approached Rome,

they had tarried a little,

and come under an olive tree,



[4030] high and branched and plentiful.

They unloaded from the carts the barrels

full of possessions and jewels;

a full [load] of it they buried



right away, then they left.

Straight to Rome , without delaying,

they go, they do not want to tarry.

Further on on their iron-hard road,

there they found three intersections;

three very large ditches they made there,

[4040] the three barrels they put in there.

From there they left then

and go straight to Rome.

Afterward the went to lodge

with a burgher and well-off [person].


They held [their] lodging with great noble                                             .                                                       [liberality],


for they will want to carry on richly.

Who[ever] wants to, he eats in their lodging;

never will there be a door held [closed].




As soon as they saw evening come,

[4050] they had big candles lit,

for they say that the body will be low


when the ninth hour comes,

nor will court be liberally held

when there has no plenty been seen.

The king heard [people] talk about it;

he goes to see them and to look.



He did not go too privately,

rather he led with him a great [number of] people. When those heard it, they went toward [him],





[4060] wine and claret they brought him.




To the last one who drank the wine

they gave the cup of fine gold.

The king marvelled at that,

right away he asked them:

‘[My] lords, tell me where you take



this great wealth that you are spending.

I could not suffer

this expense that I see you carrying out.’

One of the sergeants had spoken:

[4070] ‘Lord God gives it to us.

We do no other work

except only to dream.

The treasures we have unearthed

and we are spending them liberally.’

Then said the king right away: ‘[My] lords, hear my .                                                                [opinion:

I have this kingdom to govern;

know [that] I want to share with you.’





Those reply together:

[4080] ‘Sire, we will do your command.’

So then the king went away,

there he remained no longer.

And the sergeants go to go to bed

quickly, without delaying.





In the morning they rose at day[light],

to the king they, straight into his tower.

Said one sergeant: ‘I have dreamt

a bit of  very rich possessions:

a barrel full of silver and of gold;

[4090] there is no more in this treasure.’




The king brought three sergeants to them

who were courteous and brave.

Straight to the olive tree they came,


there they stopped.

The barrel they dug up,


then they had left from there.



To the king they give [it] all right away,

they are astonishing him strongly.


To the other barrels they went,

[4100] right away they dug them up.

To the king they give [them] all, without sharing;

all this they do in order to astonish him.



Four days they spent thus,

of nothing did they speak.

To the king they went now

and spoke to him within [everyone’s] earshot.

One sergeant said: ‘This dreaming

can hardly advance us.

Ha! Noble emperor,

[4110] there is underneath this mirror,

this you should know, such great wealth

that there is no man born

who would [be able to] put a number to it


and there is nobody who would [be able to] exhaust                                                                    .                                                                      [it.’



This said the king: ‘This I believe well,

so help me God and Saint Aignien,








but for a thousand marks I would not suffer,

for any wealth I would not want

[that] the mirror were damaged,


[4120] [that for] neither this nor that it were pulled                                                                 .                                                                [down.’


‘We will dig above from afar;


we know much of such a job.’


The king responded to them angrily:

‘It behooves me to do your pleasure.’

To the mirror those came,

and there they stopped.

They begin to dig from afar,

well do they take pains to astonish him.

So much they dug and so much they scraped

[4130] that they unearthed the mirror.





When they saw that it was lost

and vilely confounded,

they sturdied it a little bit,

then they had returned from there.

Before the king they came,

there they stopped:



‘Now have the ditch guarded;

do not let any man live there.


Tomorrow you should have a thousand marks of                                                            .                                                            [fine gold,

[4140] more than had king Constantine.’











Around midnight stumbled

the mirror and collapsed;

thirty houses it brought down

and vilely confounded.


And the Romans were astounded by it,



they come to the king and speak badly of him.


A full basin of gold they had boiled,


at his body they throw it angrily:



‘Gold you had, gold you coveted,

[4150] and by a plenty of gold you will die!’

Like this you, too, are serving [your people], good                                                                  .                                                                   [king,



by that faith that I owe you.

You will die from greed,

so help me God and Saint Denis!

The sayings of the Sages you coveted

and, know [it] well, you will die from it,

for they will make your son surmount [you]

[and make him] carry [your] crown during your                                                        .                                                            [lifetime.’”




K Inclusa by Berous


[4225] “There was once a knight

in the kingdom of Monbergier,

prized for [his] weapons and well travelled [he was]


and through wealth richly powerful.

In his bed he lay and dreamed

[4230] that a beautiful lady he loved.

He did not know from where she was, nor from

[which land,

except that his/her love made war against her/him;





he knew very well, if he saw her,

that very, very well he would recognize her.

And the lady dreamed as well

that she loved the knight.

She did not know from where he was, nor from

[which land,

except that her/his love made war against him/her;

if she saw him, by chance,

[4240] she would recognize him right away.


He had his departure prepared,

and loaded a good horse,

know this, with gold and with silver,

for he wants to spend liberally.

I hold him [to be] the son of Folly

who for dreaming enters upon a road[trip]!


Three weeks did that one wander

[but] had not found anything

of all that he sought,


[4250] and [yet] had hope all days.

He came back through Hungary,

a very well endowed land.

Near the sea he finds a castle

which was closed by a new wall.

The tower of it was beautiful and gentle,

high toward the sky, I am not lying,

very well an archer has conceived it [?];

it was of a very beautiful appearance,

it was thirty feet thick.

[4260] The lord was wealthy

to whom this castle belonged.

The tower was very noble and strong;





ten well locked doors there were

which were nobly closed.

The lord carried the keys,

no man did he trust:

his wife was therein imprisoned


who in beauty resembled a fairy.

See here now the knight [who had] entered

[4270] the center of that vile place.

He looked a little on his right

and saw the lady at the window.



Then he knew very well, when he sees her,

that this is she whom he was seeking.

And the lady had also seen


and recognized the knight

who came down the wide road;

well she recognized him by [his] face,

that this was he of whom she dreamed.

[4280] Right away she loved him more.

The God of love torments her strongly:

she almost salutes us [?]!

Because of her lord she did not dare to speak;


[instead] she took to singing a love song.



See here now the knight [who] came,

under a tree he dismounted.

Straight away he came to the lord

and addressed him in the name of love:


‘Sire, I am a knight,

[4290] and I have great need to earn [my living].

Of you I have heard much talk.

Retain me, by your grace,

for I have a great war in my country;

a knight I killed there.’

That one said: ‘Be you welcomed,

with joy you should be received,


for I, too, have a very great war.

My enemies are devastating my land;

so I would like to bring them much grief,

[4300] to disinherit [them] according to my power.’

The lord had him lodged

with a burgher and [had him] made comfortable. This knight was very courteous:

before three months had passed

he freed the land

which painfully was at war,

and took all its ennemies

and put them in prison.

There is nobody who does not see him willingly,



[4310] and they bless the road

by which he came to the country

when he finished their great war.

So then that one made him senechal

of his land and of his household.

He went one day enjoying himself,

in front of the tower marvelling.

The lady was at the window

who looked at the goings-on of the city.

She saw the knight,

by [his] face she recognized him.

She took a big piece of wood and threw it to him [4320] beside the tower and it fell toward him

in such a way that the thick [end] went [pointing]


and the thin [end] fell [pointing] up.

That one took the piece of wood and lifted it up; hollow it was inside, so he thought to himself

that this was a sign

that he pursued without hesitation

how he could talk to her

[4330] and climb up in the tower.

Eight days had it thus been,

of nothing had he spoken,

but from then on he thought to himself

how he will speak to the lady.

One day he came to the lord,


before him he stopped.

Now he put him to reason[ing]

and asked him and inquired:








‘Sire, give me in the name of love

[4340] a place beside that tower

where I may begin a house;

it would be long and rather low.

Privately I would enjoy myself there

and would put my harness therein.’

The duke responds to him at leisure:

‘ Do in everything [at] your pleasure.’

Then that one had carpenters come,

for he had enough money.

Beside the tower he made a lean-to;

[4350] a palisade there was and a door.

This knight knew much of trickery:

his room he made on one side.









Then he had asked for a mason

who was born in Monbrison.

So much he promised him and gave him


that the mason assured him

that he would very well hide it,

[that] he would for nothing reveal it.


Now he pierced the tower,


[4360] which had an arm’s length of thick[ness], until he came right straight inside;

you would never see a better thief.





In eleven days he worked so much

that he reached the window.

He lifted the [door] panel,

then he turns [and] in a straight line

came to his lord

and addressed him in the name of love:

‘You can go to your friend;

[4370] I have built you the path.’

About this that one did a great misdeed

[in] that he had killed the mason,

but he did this by [way of a] cover

because he wanted to hide the undertaking.


Then he started down the pathway

and goes up the tower,

then lifted the panel, / in the tower he enters straight



There he found the lady,

[4380] he kissed her and embraced [her],


then he said to her that he would go away,

[that] there he would not stay.

The lady gives him a ring

of solid gold, which was very beautiful;


the stone on it is worth, [as far as] I know,

ten silver marks, to tell the truth.

Then he returned to the town,


there he found the lord.

When he saw him, he addressed him,

[4390] beside him he sat down; much did he honor



He looked at the young man,

on his finger he noticed the ring.



Then he believes that it is his

which was very beautiful as well as good,

but he did not want to identify it

in order [not] to put the knight to shame.

He had turned away from there,

straight to his tower he went off.


The knight  perceives it,

[4400] straight to the lean-to he came back.

He started down the pathway

and goes up the passageway.

He lifted the panel,

the ring he threw in there in a straight line;

and the lady took it immediately

and put it into her purse.

The lord came to the doors,

one after the other he unlocked.

When he has all unlocked,

[4410] he entered inside his tower.




His wife had addressed

who in beauty resembled a fairy:

‘What are you doing,’ he said, ‘[my] friend?

May the Lord God bless you!’

‘Sire, I am here imprisoned

as if you had kidnapped me.

Never before did any man do this,

nor undertake such a thing!’

‘Now suffer [it],’ he said, ‘[my] friend;

[4420] do not at all be dismayed by this.

What did you do with my ring

of solid gold, which is so beautiful?

Beautiful friend, show it to me!’


‘Sire,’ she said, ‘and I, why?

You know already that it is mine.

Certainly, I will keep it well!’

‘[My] lady, I want to see it,

on it I have turned my hope.’

When she heard it, she showed him.

[4430] When he saw it, he thought to himself

that there are quite a few rings

[which have been] fashioned in one [and the same]


That night he lay with his wife

in her chamber inside his tower.

The lord got up in the morning

and goes to pray at Saint Martin,


and the soldier as well

goes quickly after him.

The duke now called

[4440] the soldier and addressed him:

‘[My] friend, come to the forest with me.’

‘I cannot, sire,’ he said, ‘by [my] faith,


because not long ago came to me news,

that a young lady brought to me,


a friend of mine and my mistress

who right now has come down here,

that I have [now] in my country peace

that my friends have pursued for me.

So it behooves me at [this] time to go back

[4450] and return to my country.


So now I request from you out of love

and in the name of Jesus the Creator

that at once you eat with me

when you have returned from the forest.’




And the duke responds good[-humoredly]:

‘I will do according to your command.’

Into the forest he went with his retinue.

The other one pursued victuals

until he had a great plenitude of it,

[4460] for he will want to proceed with largesse. And the lady had descended,

into the lean-to she came.


She put on a [dress made of] a material from Frisia;




the look of it was very beautiful.

And she also put on a cape;

the tassels of it were of gold.

The knight had brought it;

no man had looked at it.

And she also had a belt

[4470] which was beautiful beyond measure;

the parts of it were of silver,

and the pendants of it were noble.

Two rings she had on her right hand,

and three of them she had on the left.

And she had as well a saffron-colored wimple

of silk, which was unusual.

At this time the duke came,

in front of the lean-to he dismounted.


Now I do not want to recount you more,

[4480] but they had the meal hurried along.

The water they gave without tarrying,


and the duke sat down at the table.

The soldier brings the lady in

who was white like wool.

‘Sire,’ he said, ‘see here my friend,

with us she will be, may it not weigh on you,

for with you it behooves her to eat.

Further more I will take her for [my] wife

if I live a long lifetime.’

[4490] And the duke said: ‘All your pleasure

I want to grant and [act] to your liking.’

Then the lady sat down

and ate with her lord

who very often looked at her.

When he saw her, he was very pensive;

he believes well having been bewitched.





The duke looked at the lady

who in beauty resembled a fairy.

At that meal he has thought a lot;

[4500] know [this], he ate very little!

And the lady reprimanded him

and urged him much to eat:

‘Sire, why do you not eat?

For the love of God, tell us it!’

But the lord said nothing, [except]:

‘[My] lady, I ate well.’

The high tower deceived him

which was so strong and thick.

For the entire wealth of Salomon

[4510] he did not believe the treason;

that this was his married wife,

this he did not believe for anything.

When they had eaten copiously

and it was according to their wish,

the servants remove the tablecloths

and afterward gave out the wine.

The duke goes away, he tarried not at all,

and with him was his retenue.

The lady undressed again

[4520] and removes those clothings very soon.. Quickly she headed for the passage

and goes up the pathway;

and she lifted the panel

and entered her bed in a straight line.

And the lord came to the doors,


one after the other he unlocked them.

When he had them all unlocked,

he entered inside his tower.

With him he had a sergeant;

[4530] he held a full fist[ful] of candles

which were well lit

and gave them great clarity.

He looks, sees his wife,

he took it as a great marvel.

In front of the bed he stopped,






and afterward thought to himself

that there quite a few women

who resemble one another in beauty

entirely like the ring

[4540] that he saw on the finger of the young man.


That night he lay with his friend;

the next night he will not have her at all!

The soldier wandered so much

and went up and down the embankment



until he had hired a boat;

[for] thirty silver marks he leased it.

And one brings it for him to the harbor;

the wind came for him right straight from the north.


The duke got up in the morning

[4550] to hear mass at Saint Martin.

And the soldier as well

goes after him deliberately,

the duke he called now,

courteously he addressed him:

‘Sire,’ this said the soldier,

‘out of love I pray you and request

that you give me my friend

who is so beautiful and elegant.

A long time I have held and loved her;

[4560] now I wish that she be married to me.’






The duke granted him his request;

he said [that] he will give [her] to him.

That one returns to the lean-to

who was neither foolish nor an apprentice,

and the lady descended back,

into the lean-to she came.

A scarf she had fashioned,

as best as she could she dressed wondrously.

Two knights went for her

[4570] who led her straight to the church.

Noble king, so much did [the soldier] delude [the


by the word[s] that he delivered to him,

that [the duke] married


and by the fist gave her to him!

In this he did a very great folly,

but the treason he did not know at all.

The lady lead to the church

the sergeants and the knights;

the mass sang an abbot.

[4580] When the service was finished,

they came all out of the church,

the one and the other, the fat one and the slim one. Now they go to the embankment,


and after them the entire [group of] baron[s].

The soldier commended

to God the duke and his baron[s].

And the duke came wandering up

to the lady, and thirst takes him;

into the boat he put her by the arms.

[4590] Well he had because of it to lose his pleasure!




Afterward all returned,

and that one goes away to [his] great delight

who takes away with him his friend;

great joy they have on the boat.

And the duke went to his tower,

but he did not find there his wife;




then he began to lead [a life of] mourning.

Like this are you, [too,] working,


lord king,

[4600] by that faith that I owe you.

That woman torments you strongly;

you believe her more than your [eye]sight. Tomorrow you will hear your son speak,

because he can no longer remain [silent].”




K Vaticinium by the prince


[4691] “There was once a vassal,

a rich man he was, of great valor,

and he had a son, a young man

[who was] courteous and agreeable and handsome. So long he nourished him that he was twelve years


very clever he was and knowledgeable.

One day he put himself into a boat,

together with him [was] the young man.

All alone, since there were no more [people],

[4700] they go along ‘swimming’ to a secluded spot which had established itself on a rock

in a place which was very subtl[y hidden].




Above them begin to shriek

and fly-bomb downward two crows

which from above them descended

[and] on the head of the boat sat down.



‘[My] God!’ said the father to the young man,

‘what now are these birds saying?’

The child responds: …

                                …‘I hear well

[4710] what they are saying, by Saint Aignien!



They are saying that I will climb up

and also will be so high[ly placed] a man,

father, that you will be very happy

and [yet] in your heart will hate [it]



if I deigned to suffer

that I let you hold

my sleeves when I will have to wash up

and [let you] carry…

                              …the towel,

know this, to my good mother.’

[4720] At that the father was very sad;

of what the son heard

he had a very dismayed heart.

The father swore to Saint Clement

that he prove false that argument.


Then he took his son, seized him,

in the sea tumbled him;

then he goes on ‘swimming’ to his business.

The child was very well-bred.

He knew the names of Our Lord

[4730] which protected him from pain.

At a rock he arrived;

four days he was stopped there

so that he never drank nor ate,

nor did he consider anything else there

except the birds which shrieked at him.


He knew well what they were saying,

[namely] that he would yet be amazed,

that in time he would have good help.

A fisherman there was on the sea;

[4740] around there it behooved him to stay.

He saw the imperilled one,

in the heart he had about it great joy.

He put him into his boat,

then he brought him to a castle

which in a great manner was strong,

at thirty leagues from this harbor.

He sold him to the senechal,

by twenty [gold] coins grew his wealth.


The senechal had him [as a] dear [child],

[4750] and his wife still more.

In that country was a king

who was very wise and courteous,



but three birds shrieked above him

and carried on there [in] very great grief.

They went [around] following the king

and at the very same time shrieking above him

and [also] when he went to church

and when he sat down at his meal;







but he did not want damage any one of them,

[4760] nor beat or kill or strike [it].

All the people marvelled

why those birds shrieked so.

One day the king thought to himself

that he will ask his barons [to come]

[in order] to know whether anyone would know

[how to tell him

why those birds have such anger.

All the knights go to the court,


The senechal said that he would go there,

[4770] and the child requested from him

that he let him go with him

to see and look at the court.


The senechal said to him: ‘[My] friend,

little would you do there, at my pleasure.’


Said the lady: ‘Let him go,

so he will hear those barons speak.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘at your pleasure.’

So then he turned away from there,

this child he leads away with him;

[4780] to the court the two go off together.



The king sits down under the elms;

in the branches are shrieking the birds.

All the barons have come;

the king asked them by name

that he wants to hear without delay

the significance of the birds

which are shrieking so day and night.

The country is very [full of] great noise from it. When those people had come,

[4790] one and the other, small and great,

the king got up on his feet,

his barons had addressed:

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘I have asked you [to come]. Do you know why? I will tell you it:

for here are three birds [which] have come

[and] because of which I am lost,

[and] which above me are shrieking day and night;

I do not know why they carry out such noise.

If anyone among you knew how to tell me

[4800] why these birds have such anger,


he would have half of my inheritance

and my daughter of the clear face.’

Then they all fell silent,

in the square they were all moved,

except the imperilled young man.

The senechal he took by [his] coat

and had now risen.

‘Sire,’ he said, ‘now hear me:

know [that], if the king were to hold himself

[4810] to the covenant that he told,


I would tell about these birds

why they are shrieking above the elms.


What they request I will well tell you,

never will I lie about it in the least!’

‘How would you tell it, [my] friend?

I believe that you are in a tight spot!

If the birds were not to go away

and were not to leave alone [their] shrieking,

you would never be believed about it,

[4820] but would be held [to be] crazy and foolish.’


The child responds: ‘I will tell it well,


never will I be mistaken about it in the least,

and I will do so much that will go away

and fly away the birds.’

When the senechal heard it/him

he was profoundly delighted by it;

he addressed the emperor [sic]:

‘Sire,’ he said, ‘hear, for God[‘s sake]!


I have brought here a child;

[4830] if you keep [the] covenant with him,

he will tell you about these birds

why they are shrieking above the elms.’








And the king said: ‘I affirm to him

[that I will] keep the covenant here.’

Then the young man got up,

by the barons he was much looked at.

He spoke very loudly;

the crowd heard him […].

The child said: ‘Listen, king,

[4840] and you, knights and burghers!


Do you see up there these three birds?

That is a she-crow and two he-crows.

Do you see that big he-crow over there?

It has kept for thirty years

that big she-crow peacefully.

The other year a famine arose;

he abandoned her at [this] miserable time

she sought elsewhere her cure.

The land remained desert[-like],

[4850] and she turned because of great poverty

to that he-crow that you see there

[and] which threw her out of the miserable time.


He held her in concubinage,

for he did her a great advantage.

Now the old he-crow came back

and concerning his wife was angry;

but the [other] one does not want at all to give [her]


rather he believed in defending her by debate.



To you the come for the judgement

[4860] that you may make for them loyally.

And know this, never doubt it,

[that] when the judgement will have been be made, the birds will fly away,

nevermore will they shrieke above you.’

‘By [my] faith,’ the king said, ‘I am hearing a


Never again [will] I hear its equal.

It behooves [us] therefore to make the judgement

to see if we could make them shut up

and chase [them] out of this country,

[4870] for of their shrieking I am shocked.’

So now the king judged,

[as did] knights as well as burghers


that the one by right will have the she-crow

who threw her out of [the] miserable time.


‘Sire,’ say all the barons,

‘he must have her by reason

when he threw her out of [the] miserable time,

and the other one who left her

throughout the famine time and abandoned her [4880] must lose her, may you know [it] for sure; for one must hate much the man

when he wants to abandon his wife

because of famine time or because of poverty.

Well must he fall into dishonor for it.’

When the crows heard this

one had pain from it, the other was well because of


At this point the old crow left from there

and threw out a painful shriek.

The others leave, flying away

[4890] and carrying on with very great joy;

in the country they remained no longer

nor do they scream, nor did they shriek.

The king was happy when he sees this

and carried on with very great joy.

That child he held [to be] very wise,

he had given him the inheritance

and his daughter according to the covenant.


He was [to be] king and have a great domain.

Then the child was crowned.

[4900] Very well is proven the pronouncement

that the child recounted to the father

when he tumbled him into the sea.

Of the child I will stop [to speak to] you at this


I will tell you briefly about the father

who thinks to have drowned his son

in the sea and [to have let him] perish.

The father fell into poverty;

he was exiled by the famine

because one of his neighbors led him so far

[4910] as to throw him off the land.

And he fled immediately

to the realm of which his son was king,

but it was not exact that he knew it;

he believed that he had drowned him.

It behooves me to speak of the young king

who was pensive and in fear;

he remembered his father

who had fallen into poverty,

whom a neighbor of his exiled

[4920] and chased from his country.

But he knew very well the region

where he and his mother had gone.

One of his sergeants he addressed:

‘[My] friend,’ he said, ‘listen to this!

Go quickly to the estate,

at Gerart’s, the son of Terri.

Thereto a new man has come,

he is white-haired mixed with black and white[-


And you will say to him that the king,

[4930] the young who is so courteous,

wants to dine with him tomorrow

and lodge in his house.’

He responded right away:

‘Sire, I will do [according to] your command.’

Then he went to prepare himself

and mounted on a horse.

So much he did and spurred [on his horse]

that he found the vavasor,

the father of the young, prized king

[4940] whom he believed to have drowned.

The sergeant saluted him nicely

and afterwards addressed him:

‘Sire, this the king asks of you,

the young one who is very courteous:

that he wants to dine with you.

He will come here without delay;

it is not at all very far from here.’

When he hears it, he is much astonished,

because he had little to give him.

[4950] ‘[My] friend,’ he said, ‘by Saint Omer,

about this I am happy and joyous

when the king wants to dine in here.

But because of this I have again an angry heart:

that I have nothing prepared.

I have only five breads and seven chicks,

but he will have of my good wines.’

And he responded immediately:

‘Sire, he will very good[-hearted]ly take

what you would give him, and at [your] discretion, [4960] for in him there is much goodness.’

See here now the young king [who] has come,

in front of the house he dismounted.

To his encounter went his father,

from the other side came his mother,

but they did not recognize their child;

both of them were deceived by it [all].

The father believes that he drowned

in the sea and [that he had been] tumbled


for he himself pushed him in there

[4970] because he believed [that he was] drowning




The kitchen was readied

and the water for the hands was given.


The father jumps up quickly,

because he no more made [himself] stop;

the king’s sleeves he wants to hold,

but the king does not want to suffer it.


The mother brought the towel

that another sergeant does not bring them,

but he does not want to dry [his hands],

[4980] another he made bring it.









When the king looked at [all] this,

he saw a marvel, so he crossed himself.

So then he did not remain silent any more,

when he saw that he was recognized.

The king addressed his father about it:

‘Sire,’ he said, ‘hear this!

The truth I want to confess to you,

for now I can no longer keep myself from [doing] it. [4990] Your son I am: you engendered me!

I am the one that you toppled

from the boat in order to drown me in the sea. Father, much I found you ‘bitter’

and very evil, that is my opinion,

when for the sole reason that I said to you

that a higher man than you I would be

and to greater esteem would climb,

you made me tumble

into the sea in order to drown me.

And  now is it not proven?

[5000] You made [me suffer] very great cruelty!’ When the father heard his son,

very deeply was he astounded.

When he saw his son in such great esteem,

then was the father very pensive.

To his son he shouted for mercy,

and the child forgave him

and made him master and lord

of his realm and of his honor.

The same you wanted to make, king,

[5010] that is my opinion, of the body of mine,








[you] who wanted to harm me

and so unjustly to deliver [me] to death.

You had fear, that is the sum [of it],

that I would rob from you the crown

and would be king during your lifetime.’”

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































C Tentamina by Gentullus [?]


[1] When a sergeant makes it bark,

you would then see wood pieces fly [about]!

And it goes [around] soiling the household;

one cannot anger us more about anything



‘Daughter, think about how it will be killed;

this thing will be stronger [than the first test].

If you can kill it,  



then I laud you without hesitation

that you can make another friend

[10] without fear of your husband.’ 

nor will you ever be worse for it.’




[The second test]


That one came [back] to her house;

[12] her devil torments her hard.





[17] And she put on a dress:

it was newly washed and folded.

In her hand she had a knife

[20] that she borrowed from a servant. 

[13] Her fire she lights with coal,

and she put seats around

and put the coverlets on [them],


[16] for she wanted to find a pretext.

[21] The lord came from the woods,

in front of the house he dismounted.

Never was there a day when he did not go

.                                                           [there

[to see] if another man did not disturb [her].

[27] The lord is sitting by the fire.

The lady had a very clear face;

she sat down on the other side,

[30] for she knew profoundly fox[-like


[25] Onto the coverlets jump the dogs,

[26] they will never be mindfull of anything

The greyhound comes before her,

and she caresses it, for it fears nothing.

It thrust her dress forward;

it climbed up right away.


To its woe it did so, soon it will pay for it:

right then the lady killed it!

When it falls, it lets out a wail.

The lord said: ‘Who did this?’

‘I, truly,’ she said, ‘killed it;

[40] see how it turned me out!

I cannot have so many sheets washed

nor laundered by two laundresses

without your dogs soiling everything,


nor do I dare to sound a [single] word to

.                                               [you about it.

You are more trusting dogs

than Jesus the spirit[ual].’

He swore to God the glorious about it:




‘There is in the century nothing except you                                                               .                                                          [who],

if my greyhound were to have been killed,

[50] would not impose a strong punishment                                  .                                                         [for it.’

‘It is done,’ this she said, ‘however I take


other idle talk has no role here.’



And he responds: ‘You speak the truth,

but all days [will] I have a black heart because                                        .                                                             [of it.’

She waited until the next day

to put herself on the straight path.

Right straight to her mother she went,

proudly she addressed her:

‘By God, the greyhound is dead

[60] and my lord consoles himself beautifully      .                                                       [about it.



Yet I want to love the chaplain,

Guillaume, who is not bad.

My opinion is, by Saint Simon,

[that] there is not so handsome a cleric [from     .                                            [here] to Dijon!’

‘[My] daughter, in the name of God the


do be patient still, for my love.

Thursday will be All Saints [day],

when your lord will be in a festive mood



and will hold a very high feast

[70] of knights great and honest.




When he will be sitting at dinner

and the beautiful dishes will be put before


then make believe that you are getting up

and make everything topple over.

Such a disgrace will be very great.

If you can escape after that,

you will be able to make three lover friends;

never will you be because of him worse for





[The third test]


She waited until the right day.

[80] Much was this vassal a nobleman;

he had asked his friends [to come],

the good people of that country,

the knights and the burghers

and the noble and courteous people.

Jugglers came without asking [for anything]

for he was liberal in giving.


They sound the horn for the water without                                                     .                                                       [delaying

when the food was prepared.

When he had brought in some of the dishes

[90] and filled to the brim the wine vessels,


the lady was sitting low down;

she had to eat with the senechal.



[93] Her keys she attached to the tablecloth

[96] She jumped up without delaying.

[94] so that she made everything topple over

[and made] the vessels full of wine spill out.



[97] ‘Who did this?’ said the lord.

‘Here is a very great disgrace!’


‘I did it,’ she said, ‘I cannot [take it] anymore,

[100] so help me God and Saint Gervais.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘now it is worse,

so help me God and the Holy Cross.’


Then he did not want to speak of it further,

but he had other dishes brought in.



And when his court had departed

and the house was cleared,

he calls for his wife.

‘It behooves you to be bled’.

‘Sire,’ she said, ‘bleed yourself!

[110] So help me God the glorious,

never from my arm blood will go out,

nor will an ax [!] come close to it!’

And he responds that it would do so

and that the blood-letting would be                                               .                                              [[happening]:

‘Through  the bad blood that you carry

and the poison that you have,

of which the veins are so full,

you have done me the[se] vile acts;

for very wrongfully you cut down my elm,


[120] and my greyhound, which was gentle,

you killed, and my food

you made all topple over.

By this beard of mine that I have white,

this made you do bad blood!’

And she said that she would not at all bleed,

and he draws the polished sword.

[128] when she saw the sword.

[127] Then she was much afraid

He called for a bloodletter;



[130] he comes to him and bandaged her,


then strikes in the arm and the blood spurts                      .                                                          [[out].

One could see it [from] high up.

He bled her again on the other arm;

then she was much dismayed.

Of  vile blood and of poison

was very soon the basin filled.

The bloodletter wanted to remove it

and he goes to give it an air-blow [?]:




‘Vassal, too bold are you

[140] who dared to remove it without my                                            .                                                       [leave.’







She faints amidst the people;

then more than a hundred wept about it.

When he saw her face turn white

and [saw] in the basin the blood turn white:

‘Now is it good that you remove it;

there still remains enough of it in there,

and nevertheless we have of it

drawn the worst [blood] of hers.’

In a blanket they carried her

[150] and then remanded [her] to her mother.


‘[My] lady,’ this she said, ‘I am betrayed

[152-162 lacuna]




















Thus you should have acted, king,

by God who established the law:

have that queen bled

for she knows much bad treachery.

Because of the bad blood of which she has so                                                        .                                                           [much

she wants to kill your child.”


C Roma by the queen


[187] “Three pagan kings had besieged

the city of Rome in such a way

that they wanted to burn it,

to have Saint Peter’s chair,

to put to torment the pope,

the cardinals and the other people.

The community held a council

and they devise the following stratagem.

There was a wise man,

old and ancient with beautiful age.

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘now listen

and understand well my reason.

Three pagan kings have besieged us

[200] who are not at all our friends.

And we have in here seven Sages,

all noble men by lineage.

There are seven days in the week;

the first one is Sunday.

Each one of the Sages [should] make sure on                                                    .                                                          [his day

that the whorish pagan people

cannot put us to grief in here,

[cannot] pass over the walls nor the ditches;

or if this is not [to be], without hesitation 

[210] we [will] take vengeance on [their]           .                                                       [bodies.’



Then the Sages are in fear;

the city they defend for two months

so that never because of the hated people

they lose there [so much as] a sorb-apple’s                                                        .                                                          [worth.

[217] so that not ever they could enter there,

[218] [or] pass over neither wall nor ditch.

[215] When they had to assault [them],

through their stratagem they make them flee

For those inside [things] go worrisome,

[220] for meat goes into decline.

One day they came to Janus,

the master Sage, in the palace nearby.

For that Janus one said January,

the month which is before February.

‘Sire,’ they go then, ‘now it is up to you; tomorrow you will defend [us] vigorously,

or if this [is] not [so], you are dead;

never will there be [any] other comfort.’

And he responds like a debonair man:





[230] ‘So it behooves you therefore to act well, so that all of you be armed,

[that] big and small [be] completely prepared.

Tomorrow right at the third hour [after

sunrise] of the day

I will climb up in that tower

and will make marvelous contraptions

in order to scare the Saracens.

Go out of here quickly,

big and small communally,

and mingle with the pagans

[240] and kill them like dogs.’

Those respond: ‘By Saint Thomas,

this will not be held for a joke.’

[246] and [had] soon cut a vestment;

[245] and [had] a sheet teinted in ink

[243] Then he had tails sought

[244] of squirrels, more than a thousand,

and on it they attached the tails

and arranged them thickly.

Then he had two visors made

[250] which were hideous and fierce,

and the tongues were vermilion.

Then he was turned into a great marvel.

Before this day, this is the truth,

Greek halo [?] was not looked at.



Here he waited until the [next] day

when he clothed himself in his outfit.



The visors he put on his head;

each one is hideous and honest.

And underneath (he) sat a helmet

[260] which was of the work of Duraume; mirrors he had planted there;

against the sun they give clarity.

With him he carried two swords

which are cleverly hilted.

Towards the Saracens he puts himself

on a battlement on a [hill[top].

He takes to striking with the swords

so that he makes the fire spring from them.

One of the kings said: ‘God up there

[270] has tonight descended down

in order to [come to the] help [of] his people

[on earth.

To our misfortune did we make acquaintance     .                                              [with this war!’

The father does not await the child,

rather they flee immediately.



[279] Those went away like crazy:

[280] they never lost a sorb-apple there!

And those of Rome came out of there,

very fiercely they invaded them;

many they killed and wounded

[278] and conquered great wealth there.

[281] For this [reason] the clergy still makes

the Feast of Fools in January.

Just so have you served, king,

by God who established the law.

The Sages go [about] tricking you

[286] and by their exemplum fooling you.

[Foreshadowing Virgilius]

[293] You are leading the same play

as he who plays ball.

When he holds it, often he throws it

and plays it to his companions.

Then he runs after [it] more [quickly] than his                                                             .                                                             [pace;

before he may attain it, he remains all tired out. And so is he not a very crazy fool

[300] when he throws and runs after it?”






C Avis by Chaton


[359] “In Rome there was once a castellan;

ten manors he held in his hand.

He was rich and wealthy,

and he took a wife of great beauty.


He cherished and honored her,

and she hardly prized it,

but loved much a knight

who was cowardly and very lazy;


and her lord was a vassal,

he would not fear an admiral.

But woman does not care at all

[370] except for where her heart allies itself. […]


He made a very beautiful hall,

high and round, with a tower.

He did not want to build a chamber there,

nor suffer any enclosure inside.

The rich man had a magpie:

of it it is right that I tell you.

It talked freely

[380] and attentively as well

as if it were a woman;

great talk was there about it throughout the        .                                                        [realm.

He made a cage of iron

which was not vile nor crazy.



With a double chain

it was tethered to one end;

from the cross-beam it was hung

at an angle with a beautiful view.

Above it he had made it a ceiling beam

[390] of strong planks altogether without trim. He did not want at any price

that something does it harm.

Thus he guarded his house:


he would never have done a misdeed,


nor taken anything away, nor removed            .                                                  [anything

[396] without his counting everything.

[405] the lady was not so courageous

that she went out without company,

that she would not have two men or three,

and so returned forthwith.

The magpie kept [an eye] on her so strongly

[410] [that] it took away [her] enjoyment of                                            .                                                     [her lover.                                                        

[397] Much hated it the servants

[398] all together, small and big,

[399] and the lady right as well,


[but] he knew how to take vengeance

so that the magpie would not be hurt by it,

so that it would not have mortal blame for it.

When the lord had wandered off

[404] and gone to some fair,

[411] One day the lord had wandered off

and [so had] many of his men.

The lady remained [behind] with the magpie;

there remained only a little of the household                                               .                                                           [staff].

She sat down and thought

how she will avenge herself;

she would want more to be insulted by [the                                                   .                                                        magpie]

than to be denounced by it [even if only] a                                                                   .                                                            [little.

She calls a sergeant,

[420] and he goes there immediately.

‘[My] friend, can I trust you?’

‘Yes, [my] lady, by my faith.’

‘Have you seen our magpie

which makes me lead a hard life?

I cannot speak to my lover,

nor kiss him, nor embrace [him].

Certainly, I would have very great joy

if I could take revenge on it a little.

So do you know what you will do?



[430] You will uncover the house

at the magpie’s place there above [it];

up there the ceiling beam comes down on you


and pierce it delicately

in forty spots or in a hundred.

Water and gravel carry with you,

through the hole[s] pour [it] inside

so that the magpie is wet,

[so] that it spends a bad night.

With a hammer you will hit [the roof].

[440] A full fist of candles you will hold,

and they should be will lit;

through the holes they should be thrust

so that it sees the clarity

and [so] that it believes that it is a storm.


If I have from you a little bit of help,

I will well take revenge on the magpie.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘very well

will I carry out your plan for it.’

They left everything [throughout] the night [450] and [let] the people fully calm down.

The lady had asked her lover [to come];

the knight came there.

He [made] her joyous and hugged [her].


more than thirty times he kissed her.

The magpie cries out in the cage:

‘Lady, you act like a fool!’

They had in the evening very rich hospitality; it/she was neither miserly nor avaricious.

To eat they had liberally,

[460] big and small together.

Next to the fire they made a bed;

their they wanted to carry out their pleasure.

And they lit a lamp,

but it was not elevated high up.

She wants well that that magpie

know and see that life.

The lady lay down first;

the knight immediately

kissed her and did his pleasure with her

[470] just like other men.

[477]And the sergeant turned away from there

and climbed onto the house;

very nicely he uncovered it,

[480] let himself down onto the ceiling,

and begins to pierce it

delicately without delaying.

Outside there was a young girl

who brought him water and gravel;

down through the holes he threw it

until he made the magpie wet.

Across the cage [the magpie] goes jumping,

it cannot find any good security.

That one strikes with the hammer above

[490] and shows again [and again] through                                            .                                                   [the holes

the candles quite often

which were burning very brightly.

Then it believed well [that it would] die by                                                  .                                                          [fire

and believes that it was thunder.



[496] It did not fail it all night long.

[495] Here it had vile pleasure!

When the boy saw day[light]

and saw the odor [?],

he quickly descended from there

[500] and soon recovered the house.

[503] made the knight get up.

[501] The sun rises and it was a clear day,

[502] and the lady without delaying



He made haste to ready himself.





[505] He took [his] leave and turned away                                                  .                                               [from there,

and the magpie cried out [in] high [pitch]:

‘Sire Girart, son of Tierri,

you have built [yourself] a bad spot!

Why do you not await my lord

[510] before you share in his wife?’

[471] The magpie was in its corner;

now it cries out: ‘Now I know why I see

these sheets rise up lightly!

[474] Here there is vile love-making!

[476] that you do him such disgrace.’

[475] I will tell my lord the truth

[511] He left there, it stayed,

and the rich man who came

right away dismounted,

and the lady took on the combat [with him]. She put [her] arms around his neck

and said that she loves her relief:

‘Sire, I could not sleep at night

because I want to serve you alone.’

Now she mocks well her baron[-husband], [520] for she does not prize him one lonely                                                     .                                                      [button!

The rich man marvelled

that the magpie did not speak with him. Straight to the cage he came,

the lady was together with him.

He addressed the magpie:

‘What are you doing, my sweet friend?

How goes it? And are you not healthy?

Tell me it, by Saint Helen!

You used to call to me

[530] and carry on [in] very great joy.’



‘Sire, the explanation is honest:

I am very much beaten by storm,

for last night there was no end

[to] the water which goes to the mill

raining on me and [to] it being windy

and [to] howling and thundering.

A great marvel it is, by Saint Simon,

that it did not destroy this house.

And your wife went to bed—

[540] that bed (look at it!) the entered—

with sir Girart, son of Tierri!’

Said the lady: ‘Sire, by your mercy!

Have you heared, by Saint Thomas,

and listened to this Satan?

Thus must you well believe it:

never in months was there thunder!

Look out there in that marsh

if and when it has rained so much.

Because God born of Mary

[550] did not ever make so serene a night.’

Now it happened here [by] chance

that in the evening the moon was

all bright and very beautiful

(it was waning, it was not new)

where the rich man lay,

inside the house where he was,

so that the [moon]ray came on him;


and to the knights he complained about it

and said that he could not sleep

[560] because of the moon that he saw                            .                                                     [shining.

Then he believed well that the magpie

had in all things told him trickery.

The cage he unlocked,

his hand he thrust inside.

In the anger that he had honestly

he broke its head,

then he quickly flung it into the air.

‘Go away!’ he said. ‘May God strike you        .                                               .                                                        [down!

Many times you have made me furious

[570] and angry with my wife.

He is very much a fox who believes the bird and nothing else except what he sees.’

Then he sat down inside on the bed,

he who is angry and pensive,


and saw the roof which had been disturbed,


and thought again a little to himself

[that] it was newly covered again;


[579] as it used to be, all around.

[578] of soot there appeared nothing,

[580] Then he looked at his house;

one of his sergeants he called about it:

‘Bring me a ladder there!

So help me God who did not lie,

I believe well that I am betrayed!’

And he did [it] without delaying,

and he stood it up to the ceiling.

The rich man climbed on it,



and had discovered the holes;



and he found the hammer on top

[590] and the wax which was dripping

from the candles that the sergeant


went sweeping up across the top.

Then he sought the cage

and found it all wet.

Then he knew well, without trickery,

that he was wrong to have killed his magpie.

Quickly he drew his sword

and beheaded his wife!

So he acted like the wolf

[600] which for one damage does two of                                              .                                                      [them.


For the love of God who did not lie,

take care that you do not work like this.



There is no good sense against [balanced]                                         .                                                [measure[s],

this recounts us Scripture.”



C Sapientes by the queen


[626] “There was once in Rome a king.


I do not know how he gained weight,

but never in three years did he go out

[into] the great streets of the city,

[630] nor [did he go out] of his honored                                          .                                                    [palace.

One day his barons call him,

simply the reasoned with him:

‘Sire, why do you stay inside so much?

You are because of it very much heavier!

If you wandered about, by Saint Germain,


you would be fit and healthy.’

And the king said: ‘So I will wander about and will go see my cities.’


He mounted on a horse

around him [were] many a knight.

He had had the gate opened:

[642] but out of Rome he could not go!

[644] he raises his hand and crossed himself.



He went to all of the gates,

but it amounted to nothing for him.

As soon as he came to the exit,

[648-651 lacuna]

which was wide and high and […].

[643] He spurred on the horse, it recoiled;




There there was a platform;

[654] unfortunately he sat down on top.

He demanded the seven Sages

who on this day were invested with an office.




‘Now tell me at your complete leisure

why I cannot go out of Rome.’

Those respondent: ‘We do not know;


[660] we will tell you the true explanation of it by [means of] the moon [and] the direction of .                                                     [the winds.

There we see an omen.

We seek a term of fifteen days,

before we will see no explanation of it at all.’ The king responds: ‘I will give [it] to you,

but I will do it with much difficulty.’






Then it was the custom here

throughout the people, well do I tell it you, that no man must dream

[670] in his bed, nor “fool around”

without him going to tell it to his priest,

who is his doctor and his baker [?].

He made him take a gold coin

and then carry it immediately

to Rome [and] give [it] to the Sages

in order to recount [to them his] [dream]                                            .                                                     [vision.




A poor man from Lombardy

dreamed a dreadful thing.

To his priest he went to recount it,

[680] and he made him without delaying quickly sell his house

and take on him ten gold coins.

Here then turned away from there in the                                            .                                                    [morning

this pilgrim [and went] straight to Rome.

A little beyond the city

he found a well-supplied burgh.

A woman he saw sitting there,

before her a very beautiful child.





















The pilgrim saluted them,


[690] and this child addressed him:



‘I know very well where you are going:

right straight to Rome with the demon face! Truly the are the devils,

all their sayings I hold [to be] fables.

You will bring them a gold coin,

then you will recount your dream;


and they will right then explain it

and will tell you the meaning of it.

He who would tell you it without money

[700] and would let you [keep] your gold                                                   .                                                       [coin,

would you go from there to your house?’ ‘Yes, certainly,’ said the good man.’

‘You dreamed, this is the truth,

that your house was burning,



a serene fountain it had,

very beautiful, on the other side.


The fire is a strong omen:

it is your wife who has died

since you turned away from the region,

[710] and yesterday morning she was interred. And the fountain is a treasure

where there is a lot of silver and gold.


Go away, and dig quickly,


and [receive and] hold from God very                                              .                                              [generously.’

And he responds: ‘Is this the truth,

handsome friend, that you have recounted to .                                                            .                                                          [me?

While I am close to Rome,


I will never return from there

and will have prayed at Saint Peter’s

[720] and will have spoken to the seven                                               .                                                      [Sages.’

‘Go,’ he goes, ‘handsome sweet friend,

more things will you have ever conquered                                                     .                                                         [there.’






Right straight to Rome he came wandering;



the seven Sages he found sitting

besides the Tiber on the river bank;

there stirs often a thunderstorm.

They cannot see nor determine



why the king cannot go out

of the city at his pleasure;

[730] of death they are assured.





They saw the nobleman coming

right straight to them at great leisure.



And one [of them] said: ‘Lord, for [the love                                                    .                                                       of] God,

the majestically glorious,



do send this nobleman away from here;

we let [go of] staying in Rome.’

The other one responds like a generous                                            .                                                    [person]:

‘Here would be much good to do.’

They ask: ‘Where are you going?’


[740] And he responds to them vigorously:



‘I am going to the seven Sages to talk [to                                                 .                                                         them]

and to recount my dream.’


Those respond: ‘See us here!

Never will have been lied here about                                        .                                                 [anything.’



















He handed them a gold coin

and then he recounted his dream:

that his house burned in fire,

one half  fell down;


a gentle fountain was there,

[750] there was not a more beautiful one                         .                                [from here] to Otrente.





And one of them said: ‘Your wife died

since you left your region.


The fountain is a great possession:

this you may well know to be true.

Go away and have it dug up;



about this we do not want to lie to you.’

And he responds: ‘Exactly the same

said recently a child to about it,

and still more without fail;


[760] now I do not want to leave here [and                                                  .                                                 go] to him.’

Those heard it and crossed themselves;

very severely they marvelled at it.

One of them said it to the other:

that the child knew more than they.




‘Take your gold coin and twenty of ours,


and so lead us […]

to him who said all this.’


And he responds that he would do it.

He led them to the burgh

[770] and showed them the young man.

One of the Sages embraced him,

very simply he addressed him:

‘Would you know, handsome sweet friend, for the love of God who did not lie,







why the king could not go out

of the city at his pleasure?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘if I wanted to,

the truth I would tell you about it.’



‘We will give you twenty thousand gold coins .                                                           [for it

[780] so that you will be very wealthy.’



‘So lead me with you to Rome;

there I will tell you the sum about it.’




On a horse they mounted him,



straight to Rome they carried him away.




At the home of one of the Sages, Argalés,

they dismounted him in the palace.

All around him they arranged themselves

and asked him to speak right away.







‘[My] lords, underneath the king’s bed,

[790] at only a full foot[‘s depth] [?], by [my] .                                                           [faith,


there is a kettle boiling

with fire from Hell, hideous and big.

As long as it will be there

the king will not go out of the city.

Go, have it removed;

then he will be able to go everywhere.’







They go to the king and said to him

that they found what they were seeking.




They had the bed removed

[800] and the ground soon dug up.

Right away they found the kettle

which was very hideous and fierce[-looking], for there were seven bubbles

which were blacker than ash.

The king saw them and crossed himself;

from the heart of the belly he sighed.

‘Alas!’ he said. ‘This is my hell,

a more hideous man there is not under the                                                     .                                                           [sky.





Go [ahead] and have [it] removed

[810] and [have] everything thrown into an                                             .                                                       [old pit!’



Those respond: ‘We do not know

how to remove it.’



‘Who  then told you [all] this?

Did you not find it yourselves?’

And they respond: ‘A child.’




At this point they lead him there up front.

The king saw him and embraced him;

very simply he asked him:

‘Would you know, handsome sweet friend, [820] how to extract this kettle from here?’

He said: ‘Yes, if I wanted to,

I would extract it from there in brief time.’” [End missing]


C Vidua by Jessé


[851] “In Lothringia there was a viscount


who was quite courteous and good,

and he took onto him a wife,

[…] there was not a more beautiful one [from .                                               here] to Frisia.

They loved one another in great manner;

like two children they played one with the                                                   .                                                         [other.

To her was good what he did,

and to him [was even] better what she said. Never at your ages would you hear

[860] any two persons so [well] assembled!

One day he sat down in his house;

in his hand he was holding a big stick


and in the other he was holding a knife

which was very newly crafted.

He was holding the stick and was whittling it, and at the two ends was cutting it.

The lady was amusing herself with him,

and he was paying attention elsewhere.

Young woman is proud,

[870] may you know this, and bored.

Straight toward the stick she thrust her hand! The knife was so close to her

that it struck her in the thumb

and made her bleed a little bit.

When he saw it, he fainted

and said [that] never again he will eat.

And he grieved so strongly about it

that the next day he died from it.

That one did not have at all a lion’s heart, [880] [he] who died for such a reason!

They had the corpse prepared

and carried it to the church,

in a new cemetery

(it was outside the city, very beautiful,

it was blessed and all sacred)

where the viscount was interred.


And the lady sighs and weeps,

and it weighs on her that she is still living.


On the tomb she sat down

[890] and swears [by] God and Saint Denis that she will never again leave from there

nor will enter the city,

but will remain with her lord

until God ends her day.

She did not want to believe her family,

priest, canon, cleric or sage.







When they see [that] they will not lead her                                          .                                          [away from there,

they say [that] they will never use force in the .                                                          [matter:

‘If she wants to, she will be a recluse,

[900] or she will come back from there into                                                  .                                                       [the city.’


They quickly make a lodge

and fit it out for her nobly.

They bring her a bed and fire;

alone she will remain in this place.

Very small is the house;

three days she was there, keeping watch.

[907-915 lacuna]









and asked him for his land.

Outlaws they were; much they aggrieved him and devastated his land holdings.


Now occurred thus the incident

(for them it was heavy and hard!)

[920] in which they were taken at a                                            .                                               [checkpoint

and [were] held as vassals

the very day of which I am speaking

[and] on which the viscount was buried.

They are right away given over to the king.

He was happy when he saw them

and said [that] he would not make a case of                                                  .                                                          [them,

but would very quickly hang them.

He had them led on the mount;

[930 lacuna]

feet bound; they bandaged up the[ir] eyes


and quickly hung them.


In the town there was a knight

who made strong [efforts] to have esteem.

He served the king honorably.

When a traitor was hanged,

a bad robber or a thief,

he guarded him without company,


all armed on a horse,

[940] so that there was with him no man of                                        .                                       [flesh [and blood].

If the thief was stolen

or by his family carried [off],

he was hanged immediately

in that place where the thief had been.

As for me, I say, by Saint Gervais,

that the fief was bad!

The day goes [by], night came.

The one who held the fief

had quickly armed himself

[950] and climbed onto the mount,

close to the gallows he stopped.

He hardly felt lost

nor in any way frightened,

for he was acustomed to the fact.

It was around Saint Andrew’s day,

[so] that the place was frigid,

for it was windy and it snowed

and it was very severely wintery.

And he stood [there] who was cold

[960] so that he lost [his] vigor.

So he did not know how to ‘contain’ himself nor did he dare to leave the evil-doers.

He looks down toward the cemetery

where the lady carried on [with] her anger; she weeps and sighs and laments,

toward sorrow she has put her reasoning.

He recognized her: she was his neighbor,

but was not at all his cousin.

He was there the day

[970] the viscount was interred.

He sees the fire which was burning bright, which was from the dry log;

he thought to himself that he will go [there] and will warm himself a little.

He spurs on the horse and turns [away] from                                                           .                                                         [there;

he came to the lady who was dull.



He stops outside and calls to her:

‘What are you doing, beautiful friend?’ ‘Vassal,’ she said, ‘who are you

[980] who at such an hour wanders up here?’ ‘I am Hervé, son of Guion,

who guards up there those three evil-doers. This is my job, you know it well,

but the weather is ‘disfigured’,

for it is windy and cold

and it is winter beyond measure.

Let me enter in there with you

and warm [myself] a tiny bit!

You will not have [accusations of] vileness                                                             .                                         [because of this

[990] nor talk of contempt,

truly I affirm it to you.’

‘So you can come in, [my] friend.’


She opens the door and he entered;

the horse he attached outside.


He came to the fire (he was not wicked!), agreeably he stretched out his hands.

And then the color came back to him,

he recovers all his vigor.


‘Ah!’ he said, ‘dear friend,

[1000] what are you doing at this coffin? Never did [any] man do this

[and] undertake such an action.

One can never  recover a dead one


nobody did or will do it!

And God said it and commanded

that one do good [things] for the dead,

for one cannot recover anything there.

Believe, [my] beautiful, your family;

[1010] you will have [another] rich marriage,


quite better, I am sure of it,

four times [better] than the first one.’





And she responds: ‘I will not at all do [it]!

In sorrow will I use my life,

[2017] Never from here will I leave

until the hour at which I will die.’

[2015] for for me [my] baron died;

I will render him the reward for it.





[2019] So it got nicer for him through                                    .                                            [warming up

and through speaking with the lady.

So much he stood there by her fireplace

that one of the evil-doers was stolen,


and his family carried him off,

for the shame weighed on them.

The knight departed from [the lady];

to the gallows he came and determined

that the evil-doer had been carried off from                                                   .                                                         [there;

then he became severely demented.










He thinks in himself that he will flee from                                          .                                                       [there,

[1030] and afterward that he will not do [it];

rather he will go back to the house

to [discuss] advice with the lady,

to know whether he would find help


 by which he would be able to save his life.

He spurs on the horse and came back



and very simply said to her:

[My] lady, I have come back!

A bad thing has happened to me,

for one of the evil-doers has been stolen; [1040] his family has carried it off.

So now it will behoove me to go to Frisia;

I will not wait for the judgment.’

‘Brother,’ she said, ‘it is a great loss

if you let [go] your inheritance.

Long [distances] you could go overland before you could conquer as much of it.


But if you want to love me

and take me as wife and marry [me],

I would give you such advice

[1050] and would make such a stratagem

[as to ensure] that you would not lose the                                              .                                                        [land,

but would hold it in peace without war.’ ‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘much will I have of it; for evermore will I love you.’



‘Come forward! See my lord

that was interred this very day.

Nevermore will he get worse,

nor will he move a sheet around himself. Come forward and dig him up!

[1060] Put him up instead of the evil-doer!’



He came forward and they dug him up

and put him up instead of the evil-doer.

Onto the horse they lifted him,

right straight to the gallows they carried him.



‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘if I were to hang [him], I would become a very fine coward through                                                          .                                                               [it.’

‘Friend,’ she said, ‘I will hang [him]

for your love, without any delay.’

For the ladder she had gone

[1070] in the center of the place where it had                                            .                                               [been carried.

She had put it up to the top.

Now the honest sorrow has been put [aside]!

The lady was of a bad sort:

around his neck she put the noose,

and the knight lifted him up.

The lady hung her lord

in the very place of the evil-doer!

The sage Solomon spoke the truth:

when woman  pretends to love

[1080] then it behooves [one] to be wary of                                                       .                                                         [her.

She descends and addresses him

where she sees him seated:

‘Friend, by God the glorious,

a great marvel have I done for you!

I coveted very much your love

when for it I hung my lord.’

‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘I am badly positioned, so help me God who does not lie,

[1099] ‘[My] lady,’ he said, ‘now he hangs up .                                                           [there,

but, by my head, there is more,

for during the taking [of him as prisoner] he                                           .                                             [was wounded

through the side by a sword.

As soon as they will see him whole,

they will immediately know him.’

And the lady responded to him:

‘We are at ease [when it comes] to wounding                                                  .                                                          [him].

I will do it, if you wish,

in order to accomplish your wishes.’

He held out the sword to her:

the lady struck her lord!

[1111-1114 lacuna]





[1089] for that one had broken two teeth.

Tomorrow, when the people will come here                                                          

he will be immediately recognized

as soon as he will be seen by [his] face.’





She seized a stone.

Well has the Devil inspired her!

Up the ladder she goes back,

with one hit she broke three of his teeth!

Then she descends and said to him

[1098] that she had furnished [the answer to]                                          .                                         [his entire request.







[1115] ‘Truly,’ he said, ‘dirty whore!

By Lord God who made Eve

may he be cursed, whoever he may be,

who believes too much in his wife.

Go away! Flee from here now!

[1120] So help me God who does not lie,

I would judge with reason

that one put you to coal [ashes].

Soon you have forgotten the one

who was yesterday interred for you!’



She had anger [hearing] the news:

well has she fallen between two seats!

Good king, by God the glorious,

this example I tell for you.






You are all grey and white,

[1130] your son is your flesh and your blood. He would let himself be totally put to pieces for you, by the baron Saint Richier.

If he were beside you in [times of] need,

he would not keep himself far away

and would look at your wife

[to see] to which man she would give herself. Do not kill your child

for the word of the seductress.”



C Virgilius by the queen


[1177] “Virgil was in Rome;

in that age there was no wiser man,

who had mastery of all the arts:

this the learned [community] tells us.

Virgil made a fire in Rome

through necromancy, in a very beautiful spot, which night and day burned all days

so that it not once grew [bigger]

nor at other times diminished.

The whole people marvelled [at it].

He did in this fire still more:

a man of bronze he erected upon it.

Here it was drawing [a bow]

[1190] between two magnetic rocks.

Very big was the nasty [statue];

the bow “Which does not fail” it held in its                                                   .                                                        [hand.


Letters it had written on the neck

which said to whomever saw them:

“If someone strikes me, I will shoot.”

Nothing else it said, nor is there anything                                          .                                                      [more.

From all parts people came,

big and small, communally,

to look at this marvel

[1200] of which they had heard [people]                                           .                                                        [speak

(never, certainly, was the spot lonely!),

[and] to look at the man and the fire.

And the clerks read the letters,


recounted them to the other people.

For four hundert years was the work such

that the fire never failed

when a bishop came there from Carthage, proud and of great lineage.

The letters he saw and looked at,

[1210] and it seemed to him a little thing.

To his people he said that he would strike it, and they say that he should not do [it].

‘Sire, you must well be silent about it

when no man would dare to do it.’

Proud was he: he held a stick

and with it gave [hits] onto the [statue’s] head. And that one shoots, strikes at the fire;

and right away it extinguished itself there

so that they could never determine

[1220] any coal [ashes] nor any log sticking                                                    .                                                           [out,

nor could they determine the spot

or the place where the fire was.

Virgil made of such jewels

quite a few in Rome, and the most beautiful, for [example] at the gate [lying] toward us

he made a marvelous man of bronze.

A ball it had in its hand,

which was likewise of bronze.

At the other gate from there

[1230] he erected another man.



On Saturdays, at the strike of the ninth hour, this one from there, when [the hour] sounded, threw the ball to the other,

and they carried on such play.

And he from there remains in possession [of  .                                               the ball]

until the following Saturday;

then he launched it to the other,

[so] that the whole people watched it.

Furthermore he made a mirror

[1440] which was of very great value.

[1442] the mirror was much prized.

[1441] It was a hundred feet high;

At night it gave such great clarity

that those from the city [could] see.

The servants who were going [to get] wine did not carry other candles,

nor a lantern, nor any torch,

nor any coal to see clear.


When a thing was lost

[1250] or held in the hand of a thief,

they ran to the mirror to know

[1253] To no avail a thief would steal here

since he would never eat of [the thieves’


If he had ever done a treason[ous act]

or a murder or a killing,

it would be seen in the mirror;

so the realm was free of these [crimes].

[1252] into which area this possession had                                                          

                                       [been turned.










And when a king from a foreign land

[1260] wanted to make war against Rome, they knew it through the mirror;

straight away got themselves ready

the Romans and issued forth from there,

big and small […],

and ran there under one [battle] noise.

Soon was this [foreign] realm destroyed!

[1267] All [their enemies] bore toward [the                    .                                           city] great envy

[1269] that nothing could aggrieve them,

that the mirror covered them.

There was in Hungary a king

who was very wise and courteous

and of very powerful wealth;

he had no neighbor who had as much.

And he had such [an army of] knights [that], if it could be assembled

and entered into Rome,

the land would very well be devastated.


[1268] that Rome had such overlordship

He called on four sergeants;

[1280] he had nourished them, much he                                        .                                             [trusted them:

‘Th[is] heart of mine is much swollen [because of the fact] that Rome has such great .                                                         [dignity.

The king is not worth a penny!

Never did God make a usurer

who would have been so covetous of wealth                                         .                                            [like the king];

[who] would have [taken as] lightly to                                   .                                                   [deceiving.’



Said one [of them]: ‘If the heart does not fail                                                   .                                                             [us,

the mirror which is high up,

the very highest […]

[1290] we will make crash down for you.’ The king hears it and was happy.

‘What evil [plan] are you talking about?





I will put my entire treasure into it


and other wealth that I will seek.’

‘So you brought us enough money,

and we will go to see the city.

You will hear quite a bit of what we will be                                                     .                                                      [doing,

and to what end we will be using [that                                  .                                                     money].’

‘Take brim-full measures of [money],

[1300] and load up carts-full of it!’

They have their march prepared

and on three carts loaded

the barrels full of gold and of silver,

and turn from there secretly.




To the Roman region they go at night.

They accomplished much, I think!

A little bit beyond the city


under a branched olive tree,

on the very great road

[1310] they make a ditch before morning.




One of the barrels they interred,

of gold and of silver [it was] very well filled                                               .                                                 [to the brim.





At the other three greater roads


the sergeants did as much,



and then they went to lodge


and be at ease in the city.

And they spent so liberally


that the Romans were astounded.


[1320] for who wants to, eats at their court.

[1319] Their door was not held [closed],

[1321] Five courses the poor people have                                              .                                                      [there;

very richly they enjoy themselves.

As soon as they hear the ninth hour sound, they have the candles lit;

and they say that the court is low [on hand-                                                .                                                           outs]

as soon as the ninth hour passes,

nor [that] the court is nobly held

when plentifulness there is not seen.

One goes to tell it at the king’s,

[1330] up in the rich palace,

that there are in the city such people

who are spending the entire wealth of God. The king goes up [there], goes to see them;

up to seven knights he leads [with him]. Those [others] were very happy when they                                               .                                                       [see him,

because they wanted very well to speak to                                                      .                                                         [him.

They have the candles lit,

in flasks of gold [they have] the wine brought .                                                              [in.

For the king they made a high [feast]

[1340] and carried on with such generosity that he who drank of the wine last

carried away the cup of fine gold.

The king saw it and crossed himself,

quickly he addressed them:

‘Sires, by God the glorious,

where are you from? And how are you?

I marvel where you take

the great wealth that you are spending.

I could not suffer

[1350] what I see you maintaining.’

One of them responds like a sensible [man]: ‘And Lord God gives it to us.

We have no other profession

except only [what concerns] dreaming.

The treasure we extract from the earth

and spend it liberally.’

‘Lord barons,’ this said the king,



‘so come together with me.

Lots of treasures there are in this land

[1360] that pagans lost through war.

I must well leave with you,

[I who] have to maintain the land.’

They respond: ‘Handsome lord king,

we will remain with you two months.’





One said to the other: ‘Now it will appear

who will immediately dream better!’

They take an oath [among] themselves until                                                       .                                                       [the day


when they go to the noble emperor,

and one of them said: ‘I dreamt

[1370] [about] a little bit of very easy wealth: a barrel full of silver and of gold;

there is nothing more in this treasure.

Lets go and lets take of it so much; 

afterwards we will have another greater one.’ The king had come up there,

with him [were] knights and burghers.


He led them [down] the road

at the very [hour] of dawn […].


They begin to dig

[1380] quickly, with great impetuosity;


they pulled the barrel from the earth:

the king saw it, great joy he has about it.

They gave him without dividing;

by that much they caused him to be                                    .                                                [astounded.

And the other night they dreamt again [about] the three barrels and pulled them out.

[cf. 1383]

[cf. 1384]

[About] just as much, by Saint Simon,

could dream a foolish boy!

Then they waited until the fourth day


[1390] when they go to the noble emperor.


‘Sire,’ they go, ‘such dreaming

can hardly advance us,


but we know about such a treasure

where there is more silver and gold,

to my knowledge, than could be

with the Holy Father who would put it there                                                    .                                                             [?].



Ah! Noble emperor,

may there have been a good return! [?]’

And he responds: ‘You speak the truth!’


[1400] (He was covetous of wealth.)

‘Where is it? Do not at all hide it!

May your company have good [results]!’ ‘Sire, by God the Creator,

it is underneath the mirror.’

And the king said: ‘By Saint Aignien,

that treasure is not good at all.

Even for a thousand marks I would not like, much against myself I would suffer

that the base [of the mirror] were at all                                                  .                                                [damaged,

[1410] that the mirror were to collapse.’


Those respond without delaying:


‘There is no concern for the base;

we will have [the mirror] well supported.’

In order to mislead the emperor





they began to dig


quickly and without leisure[ly pauses].

They dug underneath the base;

the earth they had carried away,

and they dug a little deep[er].

[1420] [It is only] by a little that it does not                                                                .                                                          [fall!

 [1422] when they see that it is lost.




[1421] Quickly they came to the king


‘Sire,’ they go, ‘the rest of today we will wait, and tomorrow morning we will come back. Have the ditch well guarded,


for the treasure is up for finding.

Tomorrow you will have a thousand marks of .                                                     [fine gold.

Such wealth even Constantin did not have!’ Then they went to a burgher’s.

[1430] The king is very well enchanted! Quickly they go to lie down;

they have no inclination to doze,

instead they removed themselves from the                                                    .                                                    [lodging.

They did not look at [their] horse[s],

but thought of digging further along,

[now] that they have well provided for their                                                     .                                                     [need[s].

Around midnight collapsed

the mirror and crashed

so that it felled twenty houses

[1440] and leveled [them] vilely.

Then arise the noise and the shouts,

and the Romans are all amazed.

Right straight to the lodging they went

and did not find the sergeants.

They came to the king and seized him

and very severely hurt him.

A basin full of gold they had boiled,

and then they run to seize the king;

at [his] body they throw [the gold] in large                                             .                                                  [amounts],

[1450] and then they addressed him proudly: ‘Gold you had, gold you coveted,

and by plenty of gold you will die!’

That one believed the gossipers,


thus you are doing [regarding] the traitors.

If you do not kill this child,



so help me God and Saint Amant,




he will be crowned this year,


and you will be turned into the valley [of                                                   .                                                    death].”


C Inclusa by Meros


[1499] “There was once a knight

who resided next to Montpellier,

prized for weapons [he was] and well


and through wealth strongly powerful.

In his bed he lay and dreamt

that he loved a beautiful lady.

He does not know who she is, nor in what


but love made great war for him;

and he said [that] it will never finish,

nor will he take any good rest

until he will have found,

[1510] (if he could) kissed and embraced her.



[1517] And that lady dreamt again

and for as much she loved this one still,

[although] she never saw [him], but it seems

[to her,


when they will assemble together, [that] they will well recognize each other. Exactly thus

[1522] it happened, good king, as I tell you.

[1511] he had his expedition prepared,

and he led [with him] a great packhorse

which carried much gold and silver

that he wants to spend liberally.

He can take himself for the son of Folin

who enters the road for [the purpose of]


Three whole months that one wandered about without having found anything,

that much he should have been able to


but well does his hope deceive him.

Then he came back through Hungary,

through the most powerful domain.

On the sea he found a castle

[1530] which was closed by a new wall.

The tower was beautiful and noble

and higher (may I not lie!)

than if one were to shoot an arrow [?],

and more vermilion than a salmon;

it was well eleven feet thick.

Very well was [its lord] lodged!



Toward the sea, on the other side,

[1538] of no man had one a sighting.

[1540] From her to the main exit

there were twenty doors all barred.

Her lord had closed them;

the keys he carried with him,

because he trusted nobody.


[1539] A lady he had put there in



[1545] See here now the knight,

passing down the road;

he had looked at the lady

who was sitting at the window.

At the right hour he had come there!

[1550 lacuna]



She looked down the road

[and] saw the [knight’s] company;

very well she recognized at his demeanor

the knight who comes behind [the company]


[and] that it is he of whom she dreamt.

Inside her heart she loved him.

The God of love presses her hard:

but for a little she salutes [the knight]!

[But] because of her lord she did not dare to


[1560] a song she began to sing.

The lord of the city had war;

his enemies devastated his land.




The knight saluted him,

his service he presented him;








and he said that he would retain him

and would give him [recompense] liberally.







And that one was so brave and courteous [that], before the month had passed,

he had liberated his land

[1570] and finished his great war;

his enemies he took in the field

and exiled all of them alive.

Then bring him much great honor

all the great and the lesser [people].


[…] and they bless much the road

by which he came into the region,

because he liberated the land.



One day he was walking, relaxing

[1580] [and] wondering in front of the tower. The lady was at the window

who was looking at the life of the city;



she took a big piece of wood and threw it, next to the tower it fell [in front of] him.




He passes forward and picked it up;

it was hollow inside, so he thought

that this was a sign

that he should pursue without delay

how he could go forward

[1590] and in her chamber speak with her.





Right straight he came to his lord

and very simply said to him:




‘Sire, I have war in my country;

I killed a knight there.’

[T]he [lord] said that [t]he [knight should] not

[be dismayed

for he will nobly retain him.

So he had made him senechal

of his land and of his household.

‘Sire, give me [as well], out of love,

[1600] a place in front of the tower.

A house I would lay out there;

it would be long and fairly low,

[1604] and would enjoy myself simply there.’

[1603] for my equipment I would put in there

And he responds: ‘Your pleasure

it behooves me to obey  everywhere.’

Carpenters he [de]manded immediately,

for money he had right then.

At the tower he made a lean-to;

[1610] a gate there was and a back-door.

[cf. 1618]


He had the earth removed

and carried [away] by ten porters

with carts [down] the middle of the street. Where the stable was founded

he had his horses lie there.

Another thing he will want to build:

his chamber he made in one portion.

The knight knew a lot about stratagem[s]!

Then he had [de]manded a mason

[1620] who was born in Monbrison.

So much he promised him, so much he gave


that he assured him


that he would never reveal [a secret],

but would nobly hide it.

Where the tower was pierced,

there they began.


And he takes to digging from inside

so silently [that] the people did not hear it. The earth that he dug up [cf. 1611]

[1630] he put underneath the horses.



In fifteen days he worked so much

that he reached the window.


Straight to the knight he came running


and had told him in person

that now he can go to his friend,

that he built him a path-way.

Then that one did a great misdeed

[1640] when he killed the mason,

but he did it for cover,

so that [t]he [mason] would not recount the


Then [t]he [knight] enters the passage

and runs up the tower;

he lifted the trap-door a little


and entered inside the chamber.


With the lady he had amused himself

and did all his pleasure with her.



The lady brings him a ring

[1650] of solid gold, which was very




And he left there right away

and sat the trap-door back.

Then he came back to the lord


who sat down between his friends.

He was courteous and well-mannered; Towards him he had stood up.


He saw the ring on his finger

and then was in great panic,

for it was beautiful as well as good,

[1660] and he believed that it was his!




He left straight from there

[and] came to the tower in great haste.

And the knight [leaves] equally


and comes into his lodging

and entered the passage-way

and runs up [in] the tower;

he lifted the trap-door a little

and threw the ring to the lady!






At that point see here his lord inside

[1670] who was in very great fear!

He could not come quickly:

it behooved him to open the doors.

As soon as he could, he calls [to] the lady:


‘What are you doing, beautiful friend?










There, my ring! Show it to me,

for I am in great panic about it.’

‘Sire,’ she said, ‘I guard [it] very well.

You know that it is mine.’


And he responds: ‘I want to see [it],

[1680] for I have great hope in it.’

She pulls it [out] and showed [it] to him; when he saw it, he thought to himself

that there were enough rings

hand-crafted in a [similar] manner.





Right straight to the church he went,

the knight he met [there].




And that one stood up toward [him]



and simply recounted to him

[1690] who brought good news,

[1689] that last night a young lady came to




[namely] that he has peace in his country;

his friends pursued [it] for him.



‘Sire,’ he said, ‘for the love of God,

I beg you and request out of love


that you come eat with me

when you will have come back from the


for I want to honor my friend.’

[1698] lacuna]

And he responds: ‘Your pleasure

I will do in a very good way.’

He left there with his retenue.

The other one sought meat,



and the lady descended,

she came into the lean-to.

There will be such a plan

that she puts on a dress of another guise.

The knight then said to her

that she [will be] wrong to be astonished by















At that point the lord came

[1710] [and] dismounted in front of the lean-




The water they give without delaying

when the food was readied.












Together with his wife he ate,


and profoundly he wondered

and believes well that she is his.

I do not know how to blame [him],

because he had right [on his side],

but he did not want to identify her,

instead he took to marveling.











The high tower deceived him

[1720] which was of such very great strength.







The servants remove the tables;

they give water and then wine.

He left there quickly,

and after him the people go away.

And the lady undressed,

quickly she removes her clothes.

He entered the passage-way


[and] lifted the trap door up.


At that point her lord came

[1730] who was profoundly angry;








he saw his wife who was sitting down

and gave the impression that she was sleeping.


He searches the chamber quickly,

but did not see the deception.

[If only] he had had here [so] much


that he would have perceived the trickery! […] He thought

that many women…

                             …resembled one another,

exactly like with the ring

[1740] which was on the finger of the young


At night he can lie with his friend,

since the other one will not at all have her!



The knight stayed awake

all night and planned,

and readied a ship

and rented [it for] fifteen silver marks;

all fitted out it was in the harbor.

They have good wind right straight from the


They lay down until the morning;

[1750] to the church they go, to Saint Martin. And the knight came there,



to the lord he said simply:



‘Sire, I want to take my friend



and marry [her] at the abbey.

I do not want to ask you for more

except that you come to the marrying


and I request from you, by Saint Germain, that you seize me by the hand.’











Noble king, so much did he fool him


[1760] and showed beautiful words

that [t]he [lord] delivered his [own] wife to

him[, the knight].

Before his very eyes she was married!









He led her from there straight to the river


together with him [went] the great [assembly

of] barons;




into the ship he put her with his arms.

Well must he lose [sexual] pleasure because

[of it!

And now they ‘disanchored’

and lifted the sails up to the wind.





And [t]he [lord] came to his tower.

[1770] When he did not find her scent,

then he took to reflecting

how he could recover her.

But now repenting is too late!

He can lament all at his pleasure.

Like that you want to act, king,

by God who established the law.



The queen argues so much with you

that she has taken away your sight.

Tomorrow you will hear your son speak;

he cannot remain [silent] no more.

And then you will know without contention who will be right, yes or no.”


C Vaticinium by the prince


[1843] “There was once a vavasor,


a handsome son he had from his wife.





One day he entered a boat,

together with him [was] the young man.

All alone (there were no more)

they go away navigating to a secluded place which was situated on an island,

[1850] amidst rock[s] in a solitary place.

And as they navigated thus

straight to the secluded place where they were


over them are flying at this point

two crows [which are] violently shrieking. They took to shrieking very fiercely;

into the boat they put themselves with them.

The vavasor marveled at that,

raised his hand and crossed himself.

‘Ah, God,’ he said….

                            ...‘What have these crows?’

[1860] Then the young man responds to him: ‘Sire,’ he said, ‘I know very well

what they are saying, by Saint Aignien.’

Said the father: ‘So tell it to me!

May there be no longer delay!’

‘They are saying that I will climb up

and will further be such a high man

that you would be very glad,


this they are telling you, and profoundly


if  I wanted to accept as much

[1870] as to allow you to hold

the water to be given to me for washing

and to allow [that] be brought [to me]

the towel…

                …by my beautiful mother.’

Then the father was very angry:



‘So help me God and Saint Clement,’

[lacuna] that he will prove his prediction


He passes forward, seized his son

into the sea he tumbled him,

then he went on with his business.

[1880] The child was very thoughtful

to say the name of Our Lord;

by that much he healed from [his]  pain.

He arrived at a rock;

there he was for three days,

he never drank nor ate there

nor looked at any other thing there

except the birds which are shrieking above


and in their language say to him

that he would be dismayed for nothing

[1890] for he would have very near help.

A fisherman came by sea;

there it behooved him to pass.

He saw the imperilled [child].

You can know that he was very glad!

He collected him back into his boat

and took him away to a castle

which in great manner was strong

and thirty leagues away from port,

and sold him to the senechal;

[1900] for twenty gold coins he grew his


The senechal held him very dear,

and so did his wife.

A king held this land

who was very frank and courteous.

He was followed all customarily,

so that all the people saw him,

by a big she-crow and two he-crows.

The birds were leading a great battle.

All days they go following the [same] route [1910] and shrieking strongly above the king; when he went to church

and when he sat down to eat

all days the birds are above

and shriek that they cannot any more [go on]. Of it the king had great fright

and very great fear in his heart.

He did not know to what he owed this

and what the meaning [of it] was,

nor did he dare to harm the birds,

[1920] nor to aim at them to strike them.



One day he sat down and thought to himself that his barons’ [assembly] will ask

to know if anybody will know how to tell him


why the birds have such anger.

And he summoned them all,

in a day they were assembled.

The senechal said that he will go,

and the boy begged him

to let him go with him

[1930] in order to look at the great barons’


And the senechal responded:

‘What would you be seeking, handsome [


Said the lady: ‘Let him go,

and he will hear the barons speak.’




Thus all go to the court,

so that there remains no hearing nor deaf

[person behind].

They sat down under two elms,

and above were the birds.









The king rises up

[1940] and addressed the barons:

‘[My] lords,’ he said, ‘advise my!



Because of these birds I am in fright.



[He] who would tell me what signify

[these birds and] why they shriek so strongly

[above me,

I would give him my inheritance,

my beautiful daughter with the clear face.’

Thereupon the barons held themselves mute, the young as well as the grey,

but the imperilled boy

[1950] took the senechal by the coat.


‘Sire,’ he said, ‘if I could be sure


that I have this promise,

well will I tell the king the adventure

and the nature of the three crows.’

The senechal responds right away:

‘There is here no place for mockery.





If the birds did not go away

and did not let go their great dispute,

you would not be believed,

[1960] but would be held to be a fool and an


‘Sire,’ said he, ‘I know very well

what they are saying, by Saint Aignien.’







The senechal said: ‘Lord king,

now listen a little to me.

By [my] faith, this child told me this:

that if you keep the covenant with him,

well will he tell you about these birds,


about the she-crow as well as the he-crows. And have him [be] listen[ed to],

[1970] I beg you for it, by Saint Omer!

If by chance he tells the truth,

so may [the covenant] with him be kept […]; and if he does not tell a sure thing,

in listening to him there is no great loss.’

And the king said: ‘I confirm to him

to keep the covenant here.’

Then he stood up;



well listen to him small and big.

‘Good king,’ he said,…



…‘as far as these birds are concerned,

[1980]  they are a she-crow and two he-crows.

Do you see this he-crow over there?

He has kept, for thirty years,

that she-crow freely.

The other year a famine arose.

He abandoned her in the miserable time;

she sought elsewhere her healing.

On the land which was deserted,

she turned in her poverty

to this other he-crow over here,

[1990] who ‘threw’ her out of the miserable




So now the old he-crow came

who because of his wife was furious;

but the [other] one for that does not want to

[return [her] to him,

rather he believes in defending her by judicial


Now he wants to hear clearly

which one will have her by judgment.



So judge;…

               …they will depart,

never again they will be shrieking here.’








Then deliberate about this the king,

[2000] the knights and the burghers [and


that he will have her by reason

who ‘threw’ her out of the miserable time. ‘Birds, ‘ this tells them the nobleman,

‘these barons consider at last

that he will have the she-crow

who ‘threw’ her out of the miserable time.’











Then the old he-crow left

and threw out a hideous shriek,

and the others fly away

[2010] and manifest very great joy,

[they] who nevermore returned

nor shrieked above the king.





The king had him take his daughter

and put her [in possession] of his realm.





















He remembered his father

who fell into poverty.





He sent him a sergeant









and summoned him immediately.










































At that point his father came

[2020] and dismounted at the palace.


They give the water without delaying,

for the meal was prepared.



Then he wanted to hold the sleeve

for the king, but he cannot suffer it;

instead he took the towel




[and] gives it to another servant.

Here you are: [the son’s] saying [has been]

[proven true

for which he was supposed to be tormented!

When they had eaten, without interruption [2030] they departed out of the palace.

‘May it not in the slightest turn for you to


if you do not know who I am.










‘This is your son whom you tumbled

into the sea and imperilled



for the sole [reason] that I said

that I would be a richer man than you.




And so, has it not been proven?’









Then he gave him a city.

Thus you wanted to deal, king,

[2040] this I say to you, with my body.

Did you believe, if I rose up,

that I would disgrace you(r body)?


I would rather let me be hanged,

burnt in fire and put to ashes

than sleep with my lady

and disgrace you(r body)!”